FAQs

General M2M Question

M2M stands for “”machine-to-machine”” communications. Essentially, it is the exchange of data between a remote machine and a back-end IT infrastructure. The transfer of data can be two-way:

  • Uplink to collect product and usage information
  • Downlink to send instructions or software updates, or to remotely monitor equipment

In the past, the high cost of deploying M2M technology made it the exclusive domain of large organizations that could afford to build and maintain their own dedicated data networks. Today, the widespread adoption of cellular technology has made wireless M2M technology available to manufacturers all over the world.

Wireless M2M applications include connectivity-enabled devices that use a cellular data link to communicate with the computer server. A database to store collected data and a software application that allows the data to be analyzed, reported, and acted upon are also key components of a successful end-to-end solution.

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

The Sierra Wireless GX400/440 has two visible Ethernet LEDs on the rear panel of the GX400 and GX440 devices:

  • Left LED (Activity) – Blinks Yellow when there is activity
  • Right LED (Link Speed):
    • Green – 100 Mbps
    • Orange – 10 Mbps

AirLink GX400 + GX440 FAQ

Permalink


The Sierra Wireless GX400/440 can be reset to factory defaults by pressing and holding the “Reset” button continuously for 7 – 8 seconds. When all LEDs start flashing Yellow, release the Reset button and the unit will re-boot with the factory default options.

Permalink


Briefly press the Reset button to initiate a power up or reboot. All LEDs turn Red, then Yellow, then Green, and then light in the configurations below. After the kernel has booted, while the ALEOS software is initializing, the Power LED turns Yellow, then Green, and the Network LED will flash Yellow, change to a solid Yellow, and finally turn Green.

Permalink


The LED lights on the GX400 and GX440 stand for the following:

  • Off – No activity
  • Green – Fully functional
  • Yellow – Limited functionality
  • Red – Not functional
  • Blinking – Where needed, blinking can be used to indicate altered functionality

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

Below is a classic “Hello World” style example.  If you are interested in more in-depth examples, please contact us.
— Documentation that starts with — is interpreted as luadoc
— It provides information that can be used by the IDE
local log = require(‘log’)
log.setlevel(“INFO”, “HELLO”)
— Creation of a new table that will contain the module
— Module that provide helper functions.
— @module my_module
local lib = {}
— Creation of a new field (hello) in the table
— This field is fill with a new function
— Function that prints and log hello message
— @function [parent=#my_module] hello
— @param #string name The name that will be in the message
— @return nothing
function lib.hello(name)
   print(‘Hello ‘..name..’!’)
   log.trace(“HELLO”, “INFO”, “\”Hello %s!\”, printed”, name)
end
— Creation of a field with a String value
— Default value for the message
— @field [parent=#my_module] #string default
lib.default = “World”
— creation of another function
— Default function to print hello world
— @function [parent=#my_module] helloworld
— @return nothing
function lib.helloworld()
   lib.hello(lib.default)
end
— Return of the table that will be used as a module
return lib

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

Yes. The AirLink GX400 can be configured to monitor the input, respond to specific types of events, and even trigger digital output. The device can also be configured to change its power mode in order to conserve power. These features can be configured to your needs.

The AirLink GX400 is equipped with an I/O port interface which includes 1 low power timer enable input and 1 digital I/O. These may be connected to sensors and switches to monitor status and remotely control equipment. AirLink GX400 board supports a low power timer enable input pin and a digital I/O pin which are connected to the CPU processor. The I/O signal comes in from the power connector, through a PolySwitch resettable fuse, and ties into the CPU pins with protection circuitry.

Digital Input

Digital Input can be used in two different modes: the switch mode or the voltage sensing mode.

The switch mode senses contact closures. The digital input can report either an open or closed state, and can be wired to a ground signal via a switch. When the switch is open, the input reads “”3.3V””. When the switch is closed, the input reads “”OV””.

Examples of using the input with a switch to ground:

  • When a door or other latch is opened or closed
  • Counting pulses or other electronic events
  • When a gauge reaches a certain point
  • When a container fills or empties
  • When a switch or valve is opened or closed
  • When the tow bar is raised or lowered
  • Connected to a sensor, the level of fuel in a vehicle
  • When the trunk of a vehicle is opened or closed
  • When the ignition is turned on or off

Digital Output

Digital Output of open collector design is capable of driving an external device such as a pull-up resistor or relay. As an example, a relay could be connected between the output pin and an external voltage. The voltage on the relay cannot exceed 30V. The digital output pin can handle up to 150mA.

Examples of using the digital output with an external relay or pull-up resistor:

  • Setting off an alarm or siren
  • Triggering a process to start on another device
  • Opening or closing a valve or switch
  • Locking or unlocking a door. Inputt
  • Turning a light on or off
  • Opening the vehicle’s trunk or doors

Permalink


Both the SIM enabled versions of the device (GX400 for HSPA+ and GX440 for LTE) use a standard size SIM, which is 2FF.

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

Yes, you can get a Static IP on the Verizon Wireless Network, contact an USAT sales representative or a Verizon Wireless representative or reseller to learn more about this process.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

Permalink


Yes, the GX440 fully supports fallback to 3G and 2G networks. The default setting for the GX440, when it comes to network service preference, is “”LTE Preferred””, meaning the GX440 will always look to connect to a LTE service first, if available. If LTE service is not available, then the GX440 will connect to the next fastest service available.

Customers who purchase the GX440, but who do not yet have LTE service in their area, there is a configuration option under the “”WAN/Cellular”” tab in ACEmanager 4.0 to set the GX440 to “”CDMA Only””. When this configuration is used the GX440 will not actively scan for LTE service.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

Permalink


Verizon: Band 13 – UL 777-787Mhz, DL 746-756Mhz

AT&T (future product): Band 17 – UL 704-716Mhz, DL 734-746Mhz (also Band 1 and Band 4 used outside the US

GX440 supports Verizon OR AT&T LTE frequencies, different embedded modules are required for Verizon and AT&T, therefore, there will be two distinct GX440 SKUs

GX440 does NOT support public safety Band 14 (D block) – UL 788-798Mhz, DL 758-768Mhz

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

Permalink


The SIM slot is located on the front left (as you are looking at the side with the lights and the reset button) behind the plastic cover. To access the SIM slot on the device you must remove the plastic cover with a 2mm or 5/64″ hexagon Allen wrench. Install the SIM card with the gold contacts facing down and the cut-out facing to the right. The GX400/440 also includes a SIM lock-down feature to prevent the SIM from moving during extreme vibration. The cover has a tab to mechanically secure the SIM in place during extreme vibration. When replacing the cover, first place the front into the lip and push back to make sure the four holes are aligned before screwing the bolts back in place.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

Permalink


The LTE networks that supports the GX440 are the Verizon Wireless Network and the AT&T LTE Network in the US.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

Permalink


The GX400 for EVDO networks does NOT require a SIM card and activation can be done with the appropriate network operator representative and the ESN of the device located on the bottom.

The GX400 for HSPA+ DOES require a SIM card, which can be procured from the appropriate network operator representative.

  • Sim cards used for other AirLink HSPA devices CAN be used in the GX400.

The GX440 DOES require a SIM card. This is notable, since this is the first time that an AirLink device on the VZW network requires a SIM card. SIMs can be procured from your VZW representative during the course of account activation.

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

The Sierra Wireless AirLink® products that support ALEOS Application Framework or AAF are the Sierra Wireless AirLink® GX440, the Sierra Wireless AirLink® GX400 and the Sierra Wireless AirLink® LS-300. USAT carries these products designed for the Verizon, AT&T, and Sprint carrier networks as well as through USAT’s Express M2M network services (ExpressM2M.com).

USAT has ALEOS Application Framework engineering teams on staff. Bring us your project for AAF, and we will bring intelligence to the edge for you.

You can view our Sierra Wireless AirLink GX440 and GX400 and LS300 products in the USAT web store.

Permalink


A custom AAF application can be used to collect and measure data and send custom alerts to many different destinations. This can allow you to push something that may have been server side processing down to the modem. Alternatively, you may have previously needed another computer connected in your solution to do this type of monitoring and response. Now with a custom AAF solution from USAT, you no longer need the expense of purchasing and maintaining the additional hardware. Also with fewer points of potential failure, the reliability of the solution increases.

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

Four LEDs are visible from the front and top of the AirLink GX400. Labeled (from left to right) Network, Signal, Activity, and Power, each LED can display one of three colors: green, yellow, or red.

  • LED Operation:
  • Off – No activity
  • Green – Full function
  • Yellow – Limited Function
  • Red – Not functional
  • Blinking – Where needed, blinking is used to indicate altered functionality
  • Network LED:
  • Green – On the network
  • Flashing Green – Roaming
  • Yellow – Found service, attempting to connect
  • Flashing Yellow – Link down
  • Red – No data connection available
  • Signal LED – Light shows the strength of the signal and may be nearly solid
    (strong signal) or flashing (weaker signal). A slow flash indicates a very weak
    signal
  • Green – Good signal
  • Yellow – Marginal signal
  • Red – Bad signal
  • Flashing Red – No signal
  • ActivityLED – Pulse green on packet transmit/receive on radio link.
    Otherwise, LED is off
  • Power LED:
  • Off – No power (or above 36V or below 7.5V)
  • Red – System not operational
  • Green – Normal operation
  • Green, Occasional Yellow – GPS Lock
  • Yellow – Low power mode or system booting

Caution: If you need to reset the device configuration using the Reset button, hold the button depressed until the LEDs start cycling yellow, and then release the button.

Light Patterns

The LEDs on the front of the device respond with different light patterns to indicate device states.

    Normal – Each LED is lit as applicable

  • Start up and Device Reboot – All LEDS simultaneously cycle red, yellow, and green at the start. Various light patterns continue until the Power LED turns yellow, and then a solid green, to indicate an active device
  • Radio Passthrough (H/W) – Network LED is a solid red
  • Factory Reset – All LEDs cycle yellow back and forth when the Reset pin is briefly depressed and released. Returns the device’s software to the factory default state
  • Data Retry, Failed Auth, and Retrying – The Network LED blinks red every 3 seconds

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

Permalink


Four LEDs are visible from the front and top of the AirLink GX400. Labeled (from left to right) Network, Signal, Activity, and Power, each LED can display one of three colors: green, yellow, or red.

  • LED Operation:
  • Off – No activity
  • Green – Full function
  • Yellow – Limited Function
  • Red – Not functional
  • Blinking – Where needed, blinking is used to indicate altered functionality
  • Network LED:
  • Green – On the network
  • Flashing Green – Roaming
  • Yellow – Found service, attempting to connect
  • Flashing Yellow – Link down
  • Red – No data connection available
  • Signal LED – Light shows the strength of the signal and may be nearly solid
    (strong signal) or flashing (weaker signal). A slow flash indicates a very weak
    signal
  • Green – Good signal
  • Yellow – Marginal signal
  • Red – Bad signal
  • Flashing Red – No signal
  • ActivityLED – Pulse green on packet transmit/receive on radio link.
    Otherwise, LED is off
  • Power LED:
  • Off – No power (or above 36V or below 7.5V)
  • Red – System not operational
  • Green – Normal operation
  • Green, Occasional Yellow – GPS Lock
  • Yellow – Low power mode or system booting

Caution: If you need to reset the device configuration using the Reset button, hold the button depressed until the LEDs start cycling yellow, and then release the button.

Light Patterns

The LEDs on the front of the device respond with different light patterns to indicate device states.

    Normal – Each LED is lit as applicable

  • Start up and Device Reboot – All LEDS simultaneously cycle red, yellow, and green at the start. Various light patterns continue until the Power LED turns yellow, and then a solid green, to indicate an active device
  • Radio Passthrough (H/W) – Network LED is a solid red
  • Factory Reset – All LEDs cycle yellow back and forth when the Reset pin is briefly depressed and released. Returns the device’s software to the factory default state
  • Data Retry, Failed Auth, and Retrying – The Network LED blinks red every 3 seconds

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

ALEOS Application Framework (ALEOS AF) provides developers a complete set of building blocks and tools for creating applications that run inside Sierra Wireless AirLink GX gateways. ALEOS AF builds on the proven ALEOS built-in embedded intelligence and integrates with the AirVantage M2M Cloud Platform in order to offer developers and customers a platform for creating tailored end-to-end M2M solution.

ALEOS AF provides M2M and network protocol stacks, remote application and data management, access to existing ALEOS services, and direct access to hardware interfaces for building custom M2M applications.

ALEOS AF gets solutions to market faster, simplifies deployment, and allows for specialized features that yield cheaper and more focused solutions. Intelligence at the edge reduces hardware and communication costs by preprocessing and transmitting only necessary data.

For a visual introduction to what is ALEOS AF and what it enables please see the ALEOS AF video below.

Permalink


ALEOS AF supports Lua, a general purpose scripting language that is fast, lightweight, powerful, embeddable, and suitable for the constraints of mobile devices. New applications are easy to write using Lua, and existing applications can be ported to Lua.

 

Permalink

0 Comments - Leave a Comment

Information

Article Number 000004199
Problem Resolution

Below is a chart that shows what values are considered good and bad for the LTE signal strength values:

Below are explanations of these values (and also RSSI in relation to LTE):

SINR/SNR – The signal-to-noise ratio of the given signal.
RSRP – The average power received from a single Reference signal, and Its typical range is around -44dbm (good) to -140dbm(bad).
RSRQ – Indicates quality of the received signal, and its range is typically -19.5dB(bad) to -3dB (good).
RSSI – Represents the entire received power including the wanted power from the serving cell as well as all cochannel power and other sources of noise and it is related to the above parameters through the following formula:

RSRQ=N*(RSRP/RSSI)

Where N is the number of Resource Blocks of the E-UTRA carrier RSSI measurement bandwidth.

Permalink


Antenna gain is measured in either dBi or dBd.
It is important to note that antenna gain is different than amplifier gain. Antennas do not have a power source that allows the antenna to create additional energy to boost the signal. An antenna is similar to a reflective lens in principle – it takes the energy available from the source and focuses it over a wider or narrower area.
Antenna gain is then a measure of the amount of focus that an antenna can apply to the incoming signal relative to one of two reference dispersion patterns. Digi specifies all antenna gains in dBi.
dBi is the amount of focus applied by an antenna with respect to an “Isotropic Radiator” (a dispersion pattern that radiates the energy equally in all directions onto an imaginary sphere surrounding a point source). Thus an antenna with 2.1 dBi of gain focuses the energy so that some areas on an imaginary sphere surrounding the antenna will have 2.1 dB more signal strength than the strength of the strongest spot on the sphere around an Isotropic Radiator.
dBd refers to the antenna gain with respect to a reference dipole antenna. A reference dipole antenna is defined to have 2.15 dBi of gain. So converting between dBi and dBd is as simple as adding or subtracting 2.15 according to these formulas:
  • dBi = dBd + 2.15
  • dBd = dBi – 2.15
Specifying antenna gain in dBd means that the antenna in question has the ability to focus the energy x dB more than a dipole.

Beam Width

Because higher gain antennas achieve the extra power by focusing in on a smaller area it is important to remember that the greater the gain, the smaller the area covered as measured in degrees of beam width (think of an adjustable beam flashlight). In many cases a high gain antenna is a detriment to the system performance because the system needs to have reception over a large area.

Permalink


IPv6 Settings

This is the product manual section for IPv6 Settings for the WAN. To edit these settings, go to Internet → Connection Manager. Select a WAN Interface and click on Edit to open up the WAN Configuration editor. IPv6 Settings is one of the tabs:

IPv6 configuration window


The IPv6 configuration allows you to enable and configure IPv6 for a WAN device. These settings should be configured in combination with the IPv6 LAN settings (go to Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks, select the LAN under Local IP Networks, and click Edit) to achieve the desired result.

This is a dual-stacked implementation of IPv6, so IPv6 and IPv4 are used alongside each other. If you enable IPv6, the router will not allow connections via IPv4. When IPv6 is enabled, some router features are no longer supported. These are:

  • RADIUS/TACACS+ accounting for wireless clients and admin/CLI login
  • IP Passthrough (not needed with IPv6)
  • NAT (not needed with IPv6)
  • Bounce pages
  • UPnP
  • Network Mobility
  • DHCP Relay
  • VRRP, GRE, GRE over IPSec, OSPF, NHRP
  • Syslog
  • SNMP over the WAN (LAN works)

There are two main types of IPv6 WAN connectivity: native (Auto and Static) and tunneling over IPv4 (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd).

  • Native – (Auto and Static) The upstream ISP routes IPv6 packets directly.
  • IPv6 tunneling – (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd) Each IPv6 packet is encapsulated by the router in an IPv4 packet and routed over an IPv4 route to a tunnel endpoint that decapsulates it and routes the IPv6 packet natively. The reply is encapsulated by the tunnel endpoint in an IPv4 packet and routed back over an IPv4 route. Some tunnel modes do not require upstream ISPs to route or even be aware of IPv6 traffic at all. Some modes are utilized by upstream ISPs to simplify the configuration and rollout of IPv6.

Enable IPv6 and select the desired IPv6 connection method for this WAN interface.

  • Disabled (default) – IPv6 disabled on this interface.
  • Auto – IPv6 will use automatic connection settings (if available).
  • Static – Input a specific IPv6 address for your WAN connection. This is provided by the ISP if it is supported.
  • 6to4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and transfers it to an automatic tunnel provider (if your ISP supports it).
  • 6in4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to the configured tunnel provider.
  • 6rd Tunnel (IPv6 rapid deployment) – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to a relay server provided by your ISP.

When you configure IPv6, you have the option to designate DNS Servers and Delegated Networks. Because of the dual-stack setup, these settings are optional: when configured for IPv6, the router will fall back to IPv4 settings when necessary.

DNS Servers

Each WAN device is required to connect IPv4 before connecting IPv6. Because of this, DNS servers are optional, as most IPv4 DNS servers will respond with AAAA records (128-bit IPv6 DNS records, most commonly used to map hostnames to the IPv6 address of the host) if requested. If no IPv6 DNS servers are configured, the system will fall back to the DNS servers provided by the IPv4 configuration.

Delegated Networks

A delegated network is an IPv6 network that is inherently provided by or closely tied to a WAN IP configuration. The IPv6 model is for each device to have end-to-end IP connectivity without relying on any translation mechanism. In order to achieve this, each client device on the LAN network needs to have a publicly routable IPv6 address.

Auto

IPv6 auto-configuration mode uses DHCPv6 and/or SLAAC to configure the IPv6 networks. When you select Auto, all of the following settings are optional (depending on your provider’s requirements):

  • PD Request Size – Prefix Delegation request size. This is the size of IPv6 network that will be requested from the ISP to delegate to LAN networks. (Default: 63)
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Static

As with IPv4, static configuration is available for situations where the WAN IPv6 topology is fixed.

  • IPv6 Address/CIDR – Input the IPv6 static IP address and mask length provided by your ISP (see the Wikipedia explanation of CIDR).
  • IPv6 Gateway IP – Input the IPv6 remote gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider/setup, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6to4 Tunnel

Out of the box, 6to4 is the simplest mode to enable full end-to-end IPv6 connectivity in an organization if the upstream ISP properly routes packets to and from the 6to4 unicast relay servers.

  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6in4 Tunnel

The 6in4 tunnel mode utilizes explicit IPv4 tunnel endpoints and encapsulates IPv6 packets using 41 as the specified protocol type in the IP header. A 6in4 tunnel broker provides a static IPv4 server endpoint, decapsulates packets, and provides routing for both egress and ingress IPv6 packets. Most tunnel brokers provide a facility to request delegated networks for use through the tunnel.

  • Tunnel Server IP – Input the tunnel server IP address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Local IPv6 Address – Input the local IPv6 address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6rd Tunnel

IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd) is a method of IPv6 site configuration derived from 6to4. It is different from 6to4 in that the ISP provides explicit 6rd infrastructure that handles the IPv4 ↔ IPv6 translation within the ISP network. 6rd is considered more reliable than 6to4 as the ISP explicitly maintains infrastructure to support tunneled IPv6 traffic over their IPv4 network.

  • 6rd Prefix – The 6rd prefix and prefix length should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Border Router Address – This address should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Common Prefix Mask – Input the number of common prefix bits that you can mask off of the WAN’s IPv4 address.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Permalink


Connection Manager


The router can establish an uplink via Ethernet, WiFi as WAN, or 3G/4G modems (integrated or external USB). If the primary WAN connection fails, the router will automatically attempt to bring up a new link on another device: this feature is called failover. If Load Balance is enabled, multiple WAN devices may establish a link concurrently.

WAN Interfaces

This is a list of the available interfaces used to access the Internet. You can enable, stop, or start devices from this section. By using the priority arrows (the arrows in the boxes to the left – these show if you have more than one available interface), you can set the interface the router uses by default and the order that it allows failover.

In the example shown, Ethernet is set as the primary Internet source, while a 4G LTE modem is attached for failover. The Ethernet is “Connected” while the LTE modem is “Available” for failover. A WiFi-as-WAN interface is also attached and “Available”.

  • Load Balance: If this is enabled, the router will use multiple WAN interfaces to increase the data transfer throughput by using any connected WAN interface consecutively. Selecting Load Balance will automatically start the WAN interface and add it to the pool of WAN interfaces to use for data transfer. Turning off Load Balance for an active WAN interface may require the user to restart any current browsing session.
  • Enabled: Selected by default. Deselect to disable an interface.

Click on the small box at the top of the list to select/deselect all devices for either Load Balance or Enabled.

Click on a device in the list to reveal additional information about that device.

Selecting a device reveals the following information:

  • State (Connected, Available, etc.)
  • Port
  • UID (Unique identifier. This could be a name or number/letter combination.)
  • IP Address
  • Gateway
  • Netmask
  • Stats: bytes in, bytes out
  • Uptime

Click “Edit” to view configuration options for the selected device. For 3G/4G modems, click “Control” to view options to activate or update the device.

WAN Configuration

Select a WAN interface and click on Edit to open the WAN Configuration editor. The tabs available in this editor are specific to the particular WAN interface types.

General Settings

Device Settings
  • Enabled: Select/deselect to enable/disable.
  • Force NAT: Normally NAT is part of the Routing Mode setting which is selected on the LAN side in Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks. Select this option to force NAT whenever this WAN device is being used.
  • Priority: This number controls failover and failback order. The lower the number, the higher the priority and the more use the device will get. This number will change when you move devices around with the priority arrows in the WAN Interfaces list.
  • Load Balance: Select to allow this device to be available for the Load Balance pool.
  • Download bandwidth: Defines the default download bandwidth for use in Load Balance and QoS (quality of service, or traffic shaping) algorithms. (Range: 128 Kb/s to 1 Gb/s.)
  • Upload bandwidth: Defines the default upload bandwidth for use in Load Balance and QoS (quality of service, or traffic shaping) algorithms. (Range: 128 Kb/s to 1 Gb/s.)
  • MTU: Maximum transmission unit. This is the size of the largest protocol data unit that the device can pass. (Range: 46 to 1500 Bytes.)
  • Hostname (This only shows for certain devices.)
IPv4 Failure Check (Advanced)

If this is enabled, the router will check that the highest priority active WAN interface can get to the Internet even if the WAN connection is not actively being used. If the interface goes down, the router will switch to the next highest priority interface available. If this is not selected, the router will still failover to the next highest priority interface but only after the user has attempted to get out to the Internet and failed.

Idle Check Interval: The amount of time between each check. (Default: 30 seconds. Range: 10-3600 seconds.)

Monitor while connected: (Default: Off) Select from the following dropdown options:

  • Passive DNS (modem only): The router will take no action until data is detected that is destined for the WAN. When this data is detected, the data will be sent and the router will check for received data for 2 seconds. If no data is received the router behaves as described below under Active DNS.
  • Active DNS (modem only): A DNS request will be sent to the DNS servers. If no data is received, the DNS request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. (The first 2 requests will be directed at the Primary DNS server and the second 2 requests will be directed at the Secondary DNS server.) If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected and failover will occur.
  • Active Ping: A ping request will be sent to the Ping Target. If no data is received, the ping request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected and failover will occur. When “Active Ping” is selected, the next line gives an estimate of data usage in this form: “Active Ping could use as much as 9.3 MB of data per month.” This amount depends on the Idle Check Interval.
  • Off: Once the link is established the router takes no action to verify that it is still up.

Ping IP Address: If you selected “Active Ping”, you will need to input an IP address. This must be an address that can be reached through your WAN connection (modem/Ethernet). Some ISPs/Carriers block certain addresses, so choose an address that all of your WAN connections can use. For best results, select an established public IP address. For example, you might ping Google Public DNS at 8.8.8.8 or Level 3 Communications at 4.2.2.2.

IPv6 Failure Check (Advanced)

The settings for IPv6 Failure Check match those for IPv4 Failure Check except that the IP address for Active Ping is an IPv6 address.

Failback Configuration (Advanced)

This is used to configure failback, which is the ability to go back to a higher priority WAN interface if it regains connection to its network.

Select the Failback Mode from the following options:

  • Usage
  • Time
  • Disabled

Usage: Fail back based on the amount of data passed over time. This is a good setting for when you have a dual-mode EVDO/WiMAX modem and you are going in and out of WiMAX coverage. If the router has failed over to EVDO it will wait until you have low data usage before bringing down the EVDO connection to check if a WiMAX connection can be made.

  • High (Rate: 80 KB/s. Time Period: 30 seconds.)
  • Normal (Rate: 20 KB/s. Time Period: 90 seconds.)
  • Low (Rate: 10 KB/s. Time Period: 240 seconds.)
  • Custom (Rate range: 1-100 KB/s. Time Period range: 10-300 seconds.)

Time: Fail back only after a set period of time. (Default: 90 seconds. Range: 10-300 seconds.) This is a good setting if you have a primary wired WAN connection and only use a modem for failover when your wired connection goes down. This ensures that the higher priority interface has remained online for a set period of time before it becomes active (in case the connection is dropping in and out, for example).

Disabled: Deactivate failback mode.

Immediate Mode: Fail back immediately whenever a higher priority interface is plugged in or when there is a priority change. Immediate failback returns you to the use of your preferred Internet source more quickly which may have advantages such as reducing the cost of a failover data plan, but it may cause more interruptions in your network than Usage or Time modes.

IP Overrides

IP overrides allow you to override IP settings after a device’s IP settings have been configured.

Only the fields that you fill out will be overridden. Override any of the following fields:

  • IP Address
  • Subnet Mask
  • Gateway IP
  • Primary DNS Server
  • Secondary DNS Server

IPv6 Settings

The IPv6 configuration allows you to enable and configure IPv6 for a WAN device. These settings should be configured in combination with the IPv6 LAN settings (go to Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks, select the LAN under Local IP Networks, and click Edit) to achieve the desired result.

This is a dual-stacked implementation of IPv6, so IPv6 and IPv4 are used alongside each other. If you enable IPv6, the router will not allow connections via IPv4. When IPv6 is enabled, some router features are no longer supported. These are:

  • RADIUS/TACACS+ accounting for wireless clients and admin/CLI login
  • IP Passthrough (not needed with IPv6)
  • NAT (not needed with IPv6)
  • Bounce pages
  • UPnP
  • Network Mobility
  • DHCP Relay
  • VRRP, GRE, GRE over IPSec, OSPF, NHRP
  • Syslog
  • SNMP over the WAN (LAN works)

There are two main types of IPv6 WAN connectivity: native (Auto and Static) and tunneling over IPv4 (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd).

  • Native – (Auto and Static) The upstream ISP routes IPv6 packets directly.
  • IPv6 tunneling – (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd) Each IPv6 packet is encapsulated by the router in an IPv4 packet and routed over an IPv4 route to a tunnel endpoint that decapsulates it and routes the IPv6 packet natively. The reply is encapsulated by the tunnel endpoint in an IPv4 packet and routed back over an IPv4 route. Some tunnel modes do not require upstream ISPs to route or even be aware of IPv6 traffic at all. Some modes are utilized by upstream ISPs to simplify the configuration and rollout of IPv6.

Enable IPv6 and select the desired IPv6 connection method for this WAN interface.

  • Disabled (default) – IPv6 disabled on this interface.
  • Auto – IPv6 will use automatic connection settings (if available).
  • Static – Input a specific IPv6 address for your WAN connection. This is provided by the ISP if it is supported.
  • 6to4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and transfers it to an automatic tunnel provider (if your ISP supports it).
  • 6in4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to the configured tunnel provider.
  • 6rd Tunnel (IPv6 rapid deployment) – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to a relay server provided by your ISP.

When you configure IPv6, you have the option to designate DNS Servers and Delegated Networks. Because of the dual-stack setup, these settings are optional: when configured for IPv6, the router will fall back to IPv4 settings when necessary.

DNS Servers

Each WAN device is required to connect IPv4 before connecting IPv6. Because of this, DNS servers are optional, as most IPv4 DNS servers will respond with AAAA records (128-bit IPv6 DNS records, most commonly used to map hostnames to the IPv6 address of the host) if requested. If no IPv6 DNS servers are configured, the system will fall back to the DNS servers provided by the IPv4 configuration.

Delegated Networks

A delegated network is an IPv6 network that is inherently provided by or closely tied to a WAN IP configuration. The IPv6 model is for each device to have end-to-end IP connectivity without relying on any translation mechanism. In order to achieve this, each client device on the LAN network needs to have a publicly routable IPv6 address.

Auto

IPv6 auto-configuration mode uses DHCPv6 and/or SLAAC to configure the IPv6 networks. When you select Auto, all of the following settings are optional (depending on your provider’s requirements):

  • PD Request Size – Prefix Delegation request size. This is the size of IPv6 network that will be requested from the ISP to delegate to LAN networks. (Default: 63)
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Static

As with IPv4, static configuration is available for situations where the WAN IPv6 topology is fixed.

  • IPv6 Address/CIDR – Input the IPv6 static IP address and mask length provided by your ISP (see the Wikipedia explanation of CIDR).
  • IPv6 Gateway IP – Input the IPv6 remote gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider/setup, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6to4 Tunnel

Out of the box, 6to4 is the simplest mode to enable full end-to-end IPv6 connectivity in an organization if the upstream ISP properly routes packets to and from the 6to4 unicast relay servers.

  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6in4 Tunnel

The 6in4 tunnel mode utilizes explicit IPv4 tunnel endpoints and encapsulates IPv6 packets using 41 as the specified protocol type in the IP header. A 6in4 tunnel broker provides a static IPv4 server endpoint, decapsulates packets, and provides routing for both egress and ingress IPv6 packets. Most tunnel brokers provide a facility to request delegated networks for use through the tunnel.

  • Tunnel Server IP – Input the tunnel server IP address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Local IPv6 Address – Input the local IPv6 address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6rd Tunnel

IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd) is a method of IPv6 site configuration derived from 6to4. It is different from 6to4 in that the ISP provides explicit 6rd infrastructure that handles the IPv4 ↔ IPv6 translation within the ISP network. 6rd is considered more reliable than 6to4 as the ISP explicitly maintains infrastructure to support tunneled IPv6 traffic over their IPv4 network.

  • 6rd Prefix – The 6rd prefix and prefix length should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Border Router Address – This address should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Common Prefix Mask – Input the number of common prefix bits that you can mask off of the WAN’s IPv4 address.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Ethernet Settings

While default settings for each WAN Ethernet port will be sufficient in most circumstances, you have the ability to control the following:

  • Connect Method: DHCP (Automatic), Static (Manual), or PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet).
  • MAC Address: You have the ability to change the MAC address, but typically this is unnecessary. You can match this address with your device’s address by clicking: “Clone Your PC’s MAC Address”.

Connect Method

Select the connection type that you need for this WAN connection. You may need to check with your ISP or system administrator for this information.

  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is the most common configuration. Your router’s Ethernet ports are automatically configured for DHCP connection. DHCP automatically assigns dynamic IP addresses to devices in your networks. This is preferable in most circumstances.
  • Static allows you to input a specific IP address for your WAN connection; this should be provided by the ISP if supported.
  • PPPoE should be configured with the username, password, and other settings provided by your ISP.

If you want to use a Static (Manual) or PPPoE connection, you will need to fill out additional information.

Static (Manual):

  • IPv4 Address
  • Subnet Mask
  • Gateway IP
  • Primary DNS Server
  • Secondary DNS Server

PPPoE:

  • Username
  • Password
  • Password Confirm
  • Service
  • Auth Type: None, PAP, or CHAP

Modem Settings

Not all modems will have all of the options shown below; the available options are specific to the modem type.

On Demand: When this mode is selected a connection to the Internet is made as needed. When this mode is not selected a connection to the Internet is always maintained.

IP WAN Subnet Filter: This feature will filter out any packets going to the modem that do not match the network (address and netmask).

Aggressive Reset: When Aggressive Reset is enabled the system will attempt to maintain a good modem connection. If the Internet has been unreachable for a period of time, a reset of the modem will occur in attempt to re-establish the connection.

Automatically check for new firmware: (Default: selected) The modem will automatically check for firmware updates by default.

Enable Aux Antenna: (Default: selected) Enable or disable the modem’s auxiliary diversity antenna. This should normally be left enabled.

GPS Signal Source: Select the antenna to be used for receiving GPS coordinates. Some products support a dedicated GPS antenna, while others use the auxiliary diversity antenna only (and some products support both).

Enable eHRPD: (Default: selected) Enable or disable the modem’s ability to connect via eHRPD (enhanced High Rate Packet Data) when connecting to a 3G EVDO network on Sprint. eHRPD routes EVDO traffic through the LTE systems, enabling easy transitions between LTE and EVDO. In rare cases it may make sense to bypass the LTE core, so this field allows you to disable eHRPD.

Modem Connection Mode: Specify how the modem should connect to the network. Not all options are available for all modems; this will default to Auto if an incompatible mode is selected.

  • Auto (all modes): Let the modem decide which network to use.
  • Auto 3G (3G or less): Let the modem decide which 2G or 3G network to use. Do not attempt to connect to LTE.
  • Force LTE: Connect to LTE only and do not attempt to connect to 3G or WiMAX.
  • Force WiMAX: Connect to WiMAX only and do not attempt to connect tot 3G or LTE.
  • Force 3G (EVDO, UMTS, HSPA): Connect to 3G network only.
  • Force 2G (1xRTT, EDGE, GPRS): Connect to 2G network only.

Network Selection Mode: Wireless carriers are assigned unique network identifying codes known as PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). To manually select a particular carrier, select the Manual radio button and enter the network PLMN. Choose from the following options:

  • None/No Change
  • Auto: Selected by default
  • Home only
  • Manual: Input the PLMN code

Functional Mode: Selects the functional mode of the modem. IPPT (IP passthrough) mode causes the modem to act as a transport, passing Internet data and IP address information between the modem and the Internet directly. NAT mode causes the modem to NAT the IP address information. Consequently, IPPT mode does not allow user access to the modem web UI and NAT mode does allow user access to the modem web UI.

  • None/No Change
  • IPPT
  • NAT

Network-Initiated Alerts: This field controls whether the Sprint network can disconnect the modem to apply updates, such as for PRL, modem firmware, or configuration events. These activities do not change any router settings, but the modem connection may be unavailable for periods of time while these updates occur. The modem may also require a reset after a modem firmware update is complete.

  • Disabled: The request to update will be refused.
  • When Disconnected: The request to update will only be performed when the modem is either in a disconnected state or dormant state. If the modem is not in one of these states when the request is received, then the router will remember the request and perform the update when the modem becomes disconnected/dormant.
  • On Schedule: The request to update will only be performed at the specified scheduled time, no matter what the state of the modem is.

Network-Initiated Schedule: When you select “On Schedule” for Network-Initiated Alerts, you also select a time from this dropdown list. Modem updates will take place at this scheduled time.

AT Config Script: Enter the AT commands to be used for carrier specific modem configuration settings. Each command must be entered on a separate line. The command and associated response will be logged, so you should check the system log to make sure there were no errors.

NOTE: AT Config Script should not be used unless told to do so by your modem’s cellular provider or by a support technician.

AT Dial Script: Enter the AT commands to be used in establishing a network connection. Each command must be entered on a separate line. All command responses must include “OK”, except the final command response, which must include “CONNECT”.

Example:

AT
ATDT*99***2#

WiMAX Settings

WiMAX Realm: Select from the following dropdown options:

  • Clear – clearwire-wmx.net
  • Rover – rover-wmx.net
  • Sprint 3G/4G – sprintpcs.com
  • Xohm –xohm.com
  • BridgeMAXX – bridgeMAXX.com
  • Time Warner Cable – mobile.rr.com
  • Comcast – mob.comcast.net

TTLS Authentication Mode: TTLS inner authentication protocol. Select from the following dropdown options:

  • MSCHAPv2/MD5 (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version2/Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
  • PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
  • CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)

TTLS Username: Username for TTLS authentication.

TTLS Password: Password for TTLS authentication.

WiMAX Authentication Identity: User ID on the network. Leave this blank unless your provider tells you otherwise.

CDMA Settings

These settings are usually specific to your wireless carrier’s private networks. You should not set these unless directed to by a carrier representative. If a field below is left blank, that particular setting will not be changed in the modem. You should only fill in fields that are required by your carrier.

  • Persist Settings: If this is not checked, these settings will only be in place until the router is rebooted or the modem is unplugged.
  • Active Profile: Select a number from 0-5 from the dropdown list.

The following fields can be left blank. If left blank they will remain unchanged in the modem.

  • NAI (Username@realm): Network Access Identifier. NAI is a standard system of identifying users who attempt to connect to a network.
  • AAA Shared Secret (Password): “Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting” password.
  • Verify AAA Shared Secret
  • HA Shared Secret: “Home Agent” shared secret.
  • Primary HA
  • Secondary HA
  • AAA SPI: AAA Security Parameter Index.
  • HA SPI: HA Security Parameter Index.

SIM/APN/Auth Settings

SIM PIN: PIN number for a GSM modem with a locked SIM.

Authentication Protocol: Set this only if your service provider requires a specific protocol and the Auto option chooses the wrong one. Choose from Auto, PAP, and CHAP and then input your username and password.

Access Point Configuration: Some wireless carriers provide multiple Access Point configurations that a modem can connect to. Some APN examples are ‘isp.cingular” and “vpn.com”.

  • Default: Let the router choose an APN automatically.
  • Default Override: Enter an APN by hand.
  • Select: This opens a table with 16 slots for APNs, each of which can be set as IP, IPV4V6, or IPV6. The default APN is marked with an asterisk (*). You can change the APN names, select a different APN, etc. For Verizon modems, only the third slot is editable. Changes made here are written to the modem, so a factory reset of the router will not impact these settings.

Update/Activate a Modem

Some 3G/4G modems can be updated and activated while plugged into the router. Updates and activation methods vary by modem model and service provider. Possible methods are: PRL Update, Activation, and FUMO. All supported methods will be displayed when you select your modem and click “Control” to open the “Update/Activate” window. If no methods are displayed for your device then you will need to update and activate your device externally.

To update or activate a modem, select the modem in the WAN Interfaces table and click “Control”.

The modem does not support Update/Activate methods: A message will state that there is no support for PRL Update, Activation, or FUMO.

The modem supports Update/Activate methods: A message will display showing options for each supported method:

  • Modem Activation / Update: Activate, Reactivate, or Upgrade Configuration.
  • Preferred Roaming List (PRL) Update
  • Firmware Update Management Object (FUMO)

Click the appropriate icon to start the process.

If the modem is connected when you start an operation the router will automatically disconnect it. The router may start another modem as a failover measure. When the operation is done the modem will go back to an idle state, at which point the router may restart it depending on failover and failback settings.

NOTE: Only one operation is supported at a time. If you try to start the same operation on the same modem twice the UI will not report failure and the request will finish normally when the original request is done. However if you try to start a different operation or use a different modem, this second request will fail without interfering with the pending operation.

Process Timeout: If the process fails an error message will display.

Activation has a 3-minute timeout, PRL update has a 4-minute timeout, and FUMO has a 10-minute timeout.

Update Modem Firmware

Click on the Firmware button to open the Modem Firmware Upgrade window. This will show whether there is new modem firmware available.

If you select Automatic (Internet) the firmware will be updated automatically. Use Manual Firmware Upgrade to instead manually upload firmware from a local computer or device.

Reset the Modem

Click on the Reset button to power cycle the modem. This will have the same effect as unplugging the modem.

Configuration Rules (Advanced)

This section allows you to create general rules that apply to the Internet connections of a particular type. These can be general or very specific. For example, you could create a rule that applies to all 3G/4G modems, or a rule that only applies to an Internet source with a particular MAC address.

The Configuration Rules list shows all rules that you have created, as well as all of the default rules. These are listed in the order they will be applied. The most general rules are listed at the top, and the most specific rules are at the bottom. The router goes down the list and applies all rules that fit for attached Internet sources. Configuration settings farther down the list will override previous settings.

Select any of these rules and click “Edit” to change the settings for a rule. To create a new rule, click “Add.”

WAN Configuration Rule Editor

After clicking “Add” or “Edit,” you will see a popup with the following tabs:

  • Filter Criteria
  • General Settings
  • IP Overrides
  • IPv6 Settings
  • Ethernet Settings
  • Modem Settings
  • WiMAX Settings
  • CDMA Settings
  • SIM/APN/Auth Settings

Filter Criteria

If you are creating a new rule, begin by setting the Filter Criteria . Create a name for your rule and the condition for which the rule applies:

  • Rule Name: Create a name meaningful to you. This name is optional.

Make a selection for “When,” “Condition,” and “Value” to create a condition for your rule. The condition will be in the form of these examples:

When Condition Value
Port is USB Port 1
Type is not WiMAX
  • When:
    • Port – Select by the physical port on the router that you are plugging the modem into (e.g., “USB Port 2”).
    • Manufacturer – Select by the modem manufacturer, such as Sierra Wireless.
    • Model – Set your rule according to the specific model of modem.
    • Type – Select by type of Internet source (Ethernet, LTE, Modem, Wireless as WAN, WiMAX).
    • Serial Number – Select 3G or LTE modem by the serial number.
    • MAC Address – Select WiMAX modem by MAC Address.
    • Unique ID – Select by ID. This is generated by the router and displayed when the device is connected to the router.
  • Condition: Select “is,” “is not,” “starts with,” “contains,” or “ends with” to create your condition’s statement.
  • Value: If the correct values are available, select from the dropdown list. You may need to manually input the value.

Once you have established the condition for your configuration rule, choose from the other tabs to set the desired configuration. All of the tabs have the same configuration options shown above in the WAN Configuration section (i.e., the options for Configuration Rules are the same as they are for individual devices).

Permalink


← FAQs