FAQs

CradlePoint Services (24)

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CradlePoint Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) provides multiple options for monitoring modem data usage: set up emailed Alerts when your modems reach user-defined data thresholds; get a quick, visual overview of your devices’ data usage with Dashboard; or run CSV Reports with data usage information.

Data usage is tracked in the routers, and that information is then sent to ECM at user-defined intervals (the default is 1 hour) for display in theDashboard or Reports; data usage Alerts aren’t affected by this usage sample interval because the information is pulled directly from the routers. The user-defined interval is a minimum: there are some event triggers that could cause additional data usage reports to be sent to ECM, such as heavy data usage. To change this interval, go to the Groups page in ECM and click on Settings in the top toolbar (the minimum value is 5 minutes). In the popup window that appears, ensure Enable Usage Reporting is selected and use the slider to edit the interval:

Data usage interval settings

There is a potential for some loss of data between the router and ECM if, for example, the router reboots before sending a usage sample.

CradlePoint recommends setting up data threshold Alerts for the most accurate, consistent information: receive an email whenever you reach one of your thresholds. For example, configure ECM to email you when your modem reaches 85% and 100% of your monthly data plan.

NOTE: The data usage numbers in ECM are strictly estimates and are dependent on information provided by the modem through the router: these may not match the carrier numbers. The carrier is the final authority for billing purposes. We recommend setting your thresholds lower than your billing allowances and regularly comparing the ECM numbers with the numbers from the carrier.

Setting Up Data Usage Alerts with ECM

Assign data cap thresholds

  1. Go to the Groups page in ECM (or Devices page to assign settings to an individual device instead of a group).
  2. Select a group and click on Configuration in the top toolbar and Edit in the drop-down menu.
    Open Groups configuration in ECM
  3. In the popup configuration window that appears, select Internet > Data Usage.
    Edit configuration window
  4. Make sure that Enable Data Usage is selected. Then under Template configuration, click Add to create a new data usage rule.
    Enable Data Usage
  5. Complete the fields in the popup window to create a data usage rule. Designate Assigned Usage in MB and select Send Alert on Cap to set ECM to send an email when your devices hit this threshold. Set up an additional alert by selecting Extra Email Alert and setting aPercent of Usage so that ECM will send an alert when the device’s data usage reaches this percentage of the usage threshold. For additional alerts, create another rule with a different usage threshold.
    Data Usage rule

Enable data usage alerts in ECM

  1. Go to the Alerts page in ECM. Select the Settings icon in the drop-down menu at the top of the page.
    Alerts page in ECM
  2. Click Add at the top left of the Alerts > Settings page in order to create a new alert notification rule.
  3. Complete the fields in the popup window to define your rule. Be sure to select Data Cap Threshold in the Alerts section.
    Adding an Alert Notification Rule
  4. Select one or more Users to create emailed notifications: otherwise the alerts you define will only appear in the Alerts > Log page.

NOTE: These emailed alerts come from ECM mail servers. You can alternatively set up router alerts through a separate SMTP server of your choice. In the Configuration window (under Groups or Devices), go to System Settings → Device Alerts. Configure your desired server in theSMTP Mail Server section.

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NETCloud Manager

The default NCM configuration generates the approximate data usage that is presented below. Protocol and carrier overhead can increase these values but these values do provide a generally good rule of thumb for data generated by use of NCM.

IMPORTANT: Things that could dramatically increase your data usage:

  1. Enabling logging, stats and alerting
  2. A high number of events being logged on the router
  3. Firmware upgrades pushed from NCM
  4. Modem disconnecting and reconnecting loops.

Routers managed through NCM:

  • By default, a Connection Pulse that are approximately 66 bytes is sent to NCM every 2 minutes.
    So 720 heartbeats/day x 66 bytes = 47520 bytes/day, 47520 bytes/day x 30 = 1,425,600 bytes/month (1.43 MB/month).
  • By default Usage Reporting that are approximately 10-20KB per report (depending on how many WAN devices are utilized on the Cradlepoint router) are sent to NCM every hour.
    So 20 KB/hour x 24 = 480 KB/day; 480 KB/day x 30 = 14400 KB/month (.014 GB/month or 14 MB/month)
  • By default Log Reports that are approximately 100KB (depending on how many events are logged on the router) are sent to NCM every hour. These reports can vary in size dramatically depending on events that are logged on the router; client connects/disconnect, modem state, etc.
    So a minimum amount of data sent would be 100 KB/hour x 24 hours = 2400 KB/day; 2400 KB/day x 30 = 72000 KB/month (.069 GB/month or 69 MB/month).

Routers not managed through NCM:

  • Every time the router is powered on it sends a 50 byte heartbeat to the NCM Server and then sends a heartbeat every 86400 seconds, (once per day).
    So the volume of data generated is approximately 50 bytes/day x 30 days = 1500 bytes/month (.0000014 GB/month or .0014 MB/month).

(The timers above can be adjusted higher or lower, depending on your data caps).


Advanced Failure Check

A ping packet is 64 bytes of data. If Advanced Failure Check set to an Idle Check Interval to 3600 (1 ping per hour) would generate 64 bytes/hour x 24 hours = 1536 bytes/day.
Then 1536 bytes/day x 30 days = 46080 bytes/month (.000042 GB/month or .042 MB/month).

NOTE: Increasing the time interval on NCM check in or Advanced Failure Check will cause data generation to increase.

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Quick Start


Basic Setup


1. Insert an activated SIM.

A wireless broadband data plan must be added to your CradlePoint AER 2100. Wireless broadband data plans are available from wireless carriers such as Verizon, AT&T, Sprint, EE, and Vodafone. The SIM must be provisioned with the carrier. Contact your carrier for details about selecting a data plan and about the process for provisioning your SIM.

Once you have an activated SIM, insert it into the integrated modem. Insert the SIM card into the slot marked SIM 1 (use the other slot, SIM 2, for a secondary/backup SIM).

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Be sure to insert the card with the notch-end first and the gold contacts facing down – it will click into place.

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2. Attach the integrated modem.

Follow these steps to attach the integrated modem:

1) Remove the left side panel cover from the router. Use a Phillips screwdriver to remove the screws, and use the Multipurpose Retaining Tool (included in the router package) to remove the cover.

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2) Slide the modem into the side of the router. The protruding section of the green board fits into the groove.

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3) Reattach the panel cover and screw it back on. (When necessary, remove the cover and modem using the Multipurpose Retaining Tool.)

3. Attach the WiFi and modem antennas.

Attach the three WiFi antennas (included) and two modem antennas to the connectors. Antennas are jointed, which enables you to position them for optimal signal. To attach, hold the antenna straight and twist the base of the antenna to connect, folding the joint if needed.

Examples of suggested antenna orientations:

Desk Mount

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Wall Mount

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Care should be taken to ensure that the router antennas are not near metal or other RF reflective surfaces.

4. Connect the power source.

Plug the provided power supply (12V DC wall adapter) into an electrical outlet. Then connect the power supply to the router.

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Ensure power is switched on:

  • O = OFF
  • I = ON

When you set the power switch to the ON ( I ) position, watch for the power LED to illuminate.

If you would like to secure the power supply cord, attach the Multipurpose Retaining Tool as shown below. Secure with included screws.

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5. Connect to a computer or other network equipment.

Connect wirelessly to the WiFi broadcast or with an Ethernet cable connected to your computer and then plugged into one of the Ethernet LAN ports (numbered 1–4).

The default WiFi network name broadcast is “2100-xxx”, where “xxx” is the last three characters of your router’s MAC address (this is the SSID on the product label). To connect to the WiFi, you will need to input the DEFAULT PASSWORD when prompted. The DEFAULT PASSWORD is provided on the product label found on the bottom of your router.

NOTE: The product label below is an example only: your DEFAULT PASSWORD and SSID will be unique.

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Accessing the Administration Pages


Once you are connected, open the CradlePoint AER 2100’s GUI-based administration pages to make configuration changes to your router.

  1. Open a browser window and type “cp/” or “192.168.0.1” in the address bar. Press ENTER/RETURN.
  2. When prompted for your password, type the eight character DEFAULT PASSWORD found on the product label.

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It’s possible – and more efficient – to do all your configuration changes through CradlePoint Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) without logging into the local administration pages. Set up a group of routers and set the configuration for all of them at once. See below for more information about ECM.

First Time Setup Wizard


When you log in for the first time, you will be automatically directed to the FIRST TIME SETUP WIZARD, which will walk you through the steps to customize your CradlePoint AER 2100. You have the ability to configure any of the following:

  • Administrator Password
  • Time Zone
  • WiFi Network Name
  • Security Mode
  • Access Point Name (APN) for SIM-based modems
  • Modem Authentication
  • Failure Check

If you are currently using the router’s WiFi network, you will need to reconnect your devices to the network using the newly established wireless network name and password.

NOTE: To return to the First Time Setup Wizard after your initial login, select GETTING STARTED on the top navigation bar and FIRST TIME SETUP in the dropdown menu.

Using Enterprise Cloud Manager


Rapidly deploy and dynamically manage networks at geographically distributed stores and branch locations with Enterprise Cloud Manager, CradlePoint’s next generation management and application platform. Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) integrates cloud management with your CradlePoint devices to improve productivity, increase reliability, reduce costs, and enhance the intelligence of your network and business operations.

Click here to sign up for a free 30-day ECM trial.

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Depending on your ordering process, your devices may have already been bulk-loaded into ECM. If so, simply log in at cradlepointecm.comusing your ECM credentials and begin managing your devices seamlessly from the cloud.

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If your device has not yet been loaded into your ECM account, you need to register. Log into the device administration pages and go to Getting Started → Enterprise Cloud Manager Registration. Enter your ECM username and password, and click on “Register”.

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Once you have registered your device, go to cradlepointecm.com and log in using your ECM credentials.

For more information about how to use CradlePoint Enterprise Cloud Manager, see the following:

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NOTE: Threat Management is only available for the AER 2100, and it requires a feature license. Enable this feature through Enterprise Cloud Manager.

CradlePoint Secure Threat Management leverages Trend Micro‘s security experience and expertise in this one-pass Deep Packet Inspection(DPI) solution. Threat Management includes settings for both IPS (intrusion prevention system) and IDS (intrusion detection system), as well as application identification logging. Use Threat Management to identify and prevent a wide variety of network threats.

This Threat Management solution examines network traffic for both signature matches from Trend Micro’s large signature database of known threats and statistical anomalies to detect previously unknown threats. Trend Micro regularly adds new signatures to its database: update your signature database version to ensure you’re defending yourself against the newest threats. You have the option to update manually or schedule regular updates.

Follow these steps to get started with Threat Management:

  1. To purchase a license or to begin a free trial, log into Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) and go to the Applications tab (this is only available to the primary account administrator). Once entitled, the router must be rebooted for Threat Management to begin working.
  2. For complete configuration options, go to Network Settings → Threat Management in the configuration pages (in ECM or locally). See configuration options below.
  3. Set up emailed or logged alerts in the Alerts tab in ECM.
  4. Set up regularly scheduled signature updates in the configuration pages, or update manually in ECM via the Devices or Groups page (click on Commands in the top toolbar and select Update IPS Signatures from the dropdown options).

NOTE: Updating the signature database version causes a network disruption for a couple of seconds. You can schedule these updates to occur during days/times when you expect less traffic on your network.

Status

The Status section shows if Threat Management is enabled. It shows the current signature database version number, the timestamp for the most recent update, and the status of the most recent attempt to update signatures.

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Click on the Update button to check for a new signature database version.

Configuration

Customize your Threat Management implementation (choose between IPS and IDS, set up a signature update schedule, etc.).

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Operation Mode: Choose IPSIDS, or neither.

  • Disabled
  • Detect and Prevent (default) – IPS mode
  • Detect Only – IDS mode

Engine Failure/Error Action: In the unlikely event of an error with the Threat Management engine, you have the following options:

  • Allow Traffic (default)
  • Deny Traffic

With Allow Traffic selected, the device will act like a typical router without Threat Management enabled and route traffic as usual. If security is a huge concern, however, you may wish to select Deny Traffic to stop all traffic when Threat Management isn’t working properly.

Application ID Logging: (Disabled by default.) The DPI engine can identify network traffic applications and send this information to the system logs. Depending on your network traffic uses, application ID logging may send huge amounts of data to the system logs. We recommend enabling a syslog server to manage this information.

To view the logs, go to Status → System Logs. For configuration options, including syslog server setup, go to System Settings → Administration and select the System Logging tab.

Signature Update Schedule

You can choose to have a different signature update schedule for modems than for other WANs. This is intended to protect against overages when data usage limits for 3G/4G modems are restricted. For both Non-Modem WANs and Modem WANs, first choose the Frequency for updates:

  • Never
  • Daily
  • Weekly
  • Monthly

Then choose the specifc day and time. These updates cause a minor network disruption, so schedule updates for times with less critical traffic.

Whitelisted Signatures

Specify individual signatures that the Threat Management engine is detecting/preventing when the traffic is actually desired. Click Add and manually input a signature ID to include that signature on the “whitelist.”

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Getting Started


Enterprise Cloud Manager Registration


CradlePoint Enterprise Cloud Manager is CradlePoint’s next generation management and application platform. Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) integrates cloud management with your CradlePoint devices to improve productivity, increase reliability, reduce costs and enhance the intelligence of your network and business operations.

Click here to learn more and sign up for a free 30-day ECM trial.

Depending on your ordering process, your devices may have already been bulk-loaded into ECM. If so, simply log in at cradlepointecm.comusing your ECM credentials and begin managing your devices seamlessly from the cloud.

If your device has not yet been loaded into your ECM account, you need to register. Log into the device administration pages and go to Getting Started → Enterprise Cloud Manager Registration. Enter your ECM username and password, and click on “Register.”

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Once you have registered your device, go to https://cradlepointecm.com and log in using your ECM credentials.

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For more information about how to use CradlePoint Enterprise Cloud Manager, see the following:

First Time Setup


When you log in for the first time, you will be automatically directed to the FIRST TIME SETUP WIZARD, which will walk you through basic steps to customize your CradlePoint AER 2100. To return to the First Time Setup Wizard after your initial login, go to Getting Started → First Time Setup in the dropdown menu. You have the ability to configure any of the following:

  • Administrator Password
  • Time Zone
  • WiFi Network Name
  • Security Mode
  • Access Point Name (APN) for SIM-based modems
  • Modem Authentication
  • Failure Check

Administrator Password

CradlePoint recommends that you change the router’s ADMINISTRATOR PASSWORD, which is used to log into the administration pages. The administrator password is separate from the WiFi security password, although initially the Default Password is used for both.

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NOTE: If you plan to use your router in a PCI DSS compliant environment, do not use this setting. Use the “Advanced Security Mode” settings under the Router Security tab in System Settings → Administration instead.

Time Zone

You can select your TIME ZONE from a dropdown list. (This may be necessary to properly show time in your router log, but typically your router will automatically determine your time zone through your browser.)

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Click NEXT.

WiFi Network Name

CradlePoint recommends that you customize your WiFi network name. Type in your personalized network name here. You can also enable the Guest Network feature (for more configuration options, see Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks).

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WiFi Security Mode

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Choose the WIFI SECURITY MODE that best fits your needs:

  • BEST (WPA2): Select this option if your wireless adapters support WPA2-only mode. This will connect to newest devices and is the most secure, but may not connect to older devices or some handheld devices such as the PSP.
  • GOOD (WPA1 & WPA2): Select this option if your wireless adapters support WPA or WPA2. This is the most compatible with modern devices and PCs.
  • POOR (WEP): Select this option if your wireless adapters only support WEP. This should only be used if a legacy device that only supports WEP will be connected to the router. WEP is insecure and obsolete and is only supported in the router for legacy reasons. The router cannot use 802.11n modes if WEP is enabled; WiFi performance and range will be limited.
  • NONE (OPEN): Select this option if you do not want to activate any security features.

CradlePoint recommends BEST (WPA2) WiFi security. Try this option first and switch only if you have a device that is incompatible with WPA2.

Choose a personalized WPA PASSWORD or WEP KEY. This password will be used to connect devices to the router’s WiFi broadcast once the security settings have been saved.

  • WPA Password: The WPA Password must be between 8 and 64 characters long. A combination of upper and lower case letters along with numbers and special characters is recommended to prevent hackers from gaining access to your network.
  • WEP Key: A WEP Key must be either a hexadecimal value of 5 or 13 characters or a text value of 10 or 26 characters.

Click NEXT.

Access Point Name (APN)

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If you are using a SIM-based modem (LTE/GSM/HSPA) with your CradlePoint router, you may need to configure the APN before it will properly connect to your carrier. Wireless carriers offer several APNs, so check with your carrier to confirm the appropriate one to use. Some examples include:

  • AT&T: “broadband”
  • T-Mobile: “epc.tmobile.com”
  • Rogers LTE: “lteinternet.apn”
  • Bell: “inet.bell.ca”
  • TELUS: “isp.telus.com”

You can either leave this on the Default setting or select Manual and input a specific APN.

If your specific modem or SIM already has APNs programmed into it, you should leave this on the Default setting. After finishing this Wizard go toInternet → Connection Manager, select your modem, and edit the settings. The SIM PIN/APN tab has more available settings than are provided here.

Modem Authentication

Some modems require a username and password to be entered to authenticate with a carrier. Do not fill in these fields unless you are sure your modem needs authentication.

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  • Authentication Protocol – Set this only if your service provider requires a specific protocol and the Auto option chooses the wrong one. Select from:
    • Auto
    • Pap
    • Chap
  • Username
  • Password

Configuring Failure Check

It is possible for a WAN interface to go down without the router recognizing the failure. (For example: the carrier for a cellular modem goes dormant, or your Ethernet connection is properly attached to a modem but the modem becomes disconnected from its Internet source.) Enable Failure Check to ensure that you can get out to the Internet via your primary WAN connection. This option is disabled by default because it may use data unnecessarily. Use this in combination with failover. For cellular modems, use this in combination with Aggressive Reset (Internet → Connection Manager under Modem Settings in the interface/rule editor).

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Idle Check Interval: Set the number of seconds the router will wait between checks to see if the WAN is still available. (Default: 30 seconds. Range: 10-3600 seconds.)

Monitor while connected: Select from the dropdown menu. (Default: Off.)

  • Active Ping: A ping request will be sent to the Ping Target. If no data is received, the ping request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected, and failover will occur. When “Active Ping” is selected, the next line gives an estimate of data usage in this form: “Active Ping could use as much as 9.3 MB of data per month.” This amount depends on the Idle Check Interval.
  • Off: Once the link is established the router takes no action to verify that it is still up.

Ping IP Address: If you selected “Active Ping,” you will need to input an IP address that will respond to a ping request. This IP address must be an address that can be reached through your WAN connection (modem/Ethernet). Some ISPs/Carriers block certain addresses, so choose an address that all of your WAN connections can use. For best results, select an established public IP address. For example, you might ping Google Public DNS at 8.8.8.8 or Level 3 Communications at 4.2.2.2.

Click NEXT.

Summary

Review the details and record your wireless network name, administrative password, and WPA password (or WEP key). Move your mouse over your WiFi password to reveal it.

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Please record these settings for future access. You may need this information to configure other wireless devices.

NOTE: If you are currently using the device’s WiFi network, reconnect to the network using the new wireless network name and security password.

Click APPLY to save the settings and update them to your router.

IP Passthrough Setup


You can quickly enable IP passthrough with the IP Passthrough Setup Wizard available under Getting Started → IP Passthrough Setup. IP passthrough takes a 3G/4G WAN data source (USB, ExpressCard, or CradlePoint business-grade modem) and passes the IP address through to Ethernet LAN.

Using this function requires many changes to your router configuration. The IP Passthrough Setup Wizard will automatically make these changes for you: simply read through the wizard and select Enable IP Passthrough on the second page. For further configuration options, see Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks.

Review the list of changes to ensure they are compatible with your router needs:

  • All Ethernet ports will be set to LAN (i.e. you cannot use Ethernet as an Internet source for your router).
  • All WAN devices will have Load Balance disabled, and the highest priority device will be used.
  • All network groups except the primary network group will be removed.
  • All wireless interfaces will be removed from the primary network group. (It is possible to have a wireless interface associated with another network.)
  • All router-based VPN and GRE services will be disabled.
  • The Routing Mode will be set to IP Passthrough. (Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks in the “Local Network Editor” under “IP Settings”)
  • The Subnet Selection Mode will be set to “Automatically Create Subnet” (Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks in the “Local Network Editor” under “IP Settings” – this shows once IP Passthrough is set as the Routing Mode). You have the option to override this and select Force 24 Subnet, which forces a subnet of 255.255.255.0 and uses the first available address in the network as the gateway. This is for compatibility with equipment that may not handle modem addressing schemes; this should not be used unless necessary.

Any Ethernet WAN connections should be disconnected before IP passthrough is enabled.

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General M2M Question (24)

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Both the SIM enabled versions of the device (GX400 for HSPA+ and GX440 for LTE) use a standard size SIM, which is 2FF.

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Connection Manager


The router can establish an uplink via Ethernet, WiFi as WAN, or 3G/4G modems (integrated or external USB). If the primary WAN connection fails, the router will automatically attempt to bring up a new link on another device: this feature is called failover. If Load Balance is enabled, multiple WAN devices may establish a link concurrently.

WAN Interfaces

This is a list of the available interfaces used to access the Internet. You can enable, stop, or start devices from this section. By using the priority arrows (the arrows in the boxes to the left – these show if you have more than one available interface), you can set the interface the router uses by default and the order that it allows failover.

In the example shown, Ethernet is set as the primary Internet source, while a 4G LTE modem is attached for failover. The Ethernet is “Connected” while the LTE modem is “Available” for failover. A WiFi-as-WAN interface is also attached and “Available”.

  • Load Balance: If this is enabled, the router will use multiple WAN interfaces to increase the data transfer throughput by using any connected WAN interface consecutively. Selecting Load Balance will automatically start the WAN interface and add it to the pool of WAN interfaces to use for data transfer. Turning off Load Balance for an active WAN interface may require the user to restart any current browsing session.
  • Enabled: Selected by default. Deselect to disable an interface.

Click on the small box at the top of the list to select/deselect all devices for either Load Balance or Enabled.

Click on a device in the list to reveal additional information about that device.

Selecting a device reveals the following information:

  • State (Connected, Available, etc.)
  • Port
  • UID (Unique identifier. This could be a name or number/letter combination.)
  • IP Address
  • Gateway
  • Netmask
  • Stats: bytes in, bytes out
  • Uptime

Click “Edit” to view configuration options for the selected device. For 3G/4G modems, click “Control” to view options to activate or update the device.

WAN Configuration

Select a WAN interface and click on Edit to open the WAN Configuration editor. The tabs available in this editor are specific to the particular WAN interface types.

General Settings

Device Settings
  • Enabled: Select/deselect to enable/disable.
  • Force NAT: Normally NAT is part of the Routing Mode setting which is selected on the LAN side in Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks. Select this option to force NAT whenever this WAN device is being used.
  • Priority: This number controls failover and failback order. The lower the number, the higher the priority and the more use the device will get. This number will change when you move devices around with the priority arrows in the WAN Interfaces list.
  • Load Balance: Select to allow this device to be available for the Load Balance pool.
  • Download bandwidth: Defines the default download bandwidth for use in Load Balance and QoS (quality of service, or traffic shaping) algorithms. (Range: 128 Kb/s to 1 Gb/s.)
  • Upload bandwidth: Defines the default upload bandwidth for use in Load Balance and QoS (quality of service, or traffic shaping) algorithms. (Range: 128 Kb/s to 1 Gb/s.)
  • MTU: Maximum transmission unit. This is the size of the largest protocol data unit that the device can pass. (Range: 46 to 1500 Bytes.)
  • Hostname (This only shows for certain devices.)
IPv4 Failure Check (Advanced)

If this is enabled, the router will check that the highest priority active WAN interface can get to the Internet even if the WAN connection is not actively being used. If the interface goes down, the router will switch to the next highest priority interface available. If this is not selected, the router will still failover to the next highest priority interface but only after the user has attempted to get out to the Internet and failed.

Idle Check Interval: The amount of time between each check. (Default: 30 seconds. Range: 10-3600 seconds.)

Monitor while connected: (Default: Off) Select from the following dropdown options:

  • Passive DNS (modem only): The router will take no action until data is detected that is destined for the WAN. When this data is detected, the data will be sent and the router will check for received data for 2 seconds. If no data is received the router behaves as described below under Active DNS.
  • Active DNS (modem only): A DNS request will be sent to the DNS servers. If no data is received, the DNS request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. (The first 2 requests will be directed at the Primary DNS server and the second 2 requests will be directed at the Secondary DNS server.) If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected and failover will occur.
  • Active Ping: A ping request will be sent to the Ping Target. If no data is received, the ping request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected and failover will occur. When “Active Ping” is selected, the next line gives an estimate of data usage in this form: “Active Ping could use as much as 9.3 MB of data per month.” This amount depends on the Idle Check Interval.
  • Off: Once the link is established the router takes no action to verify that it is still up.

Ping IP Address: If you selected “Active Ping”, you will need to input an IP address. This must be an address that can be reached through your WAN connection (modem/Ethernet). Some ISPs/Carriers block certain addresses, so choose an address that all of your WAN connections can use. For best results, select an established public IP address. For example, you might ping Google Public DNS at 8.8.8.8 or Level 3 Communications at 4.2.2.2.

IPv6 Failure Check (Advanced)

The settings for IPv6 Failure Check match those for IPv4 Failure Check except that the IP address for Active Ping is an IPv6 address.

Failback Configuration (Advanced)

This is used to configure failback, which is the ability to go back to a higher priority WAN interface if it regains connection to its network.

Select the Failback Mode from the following options:

  • Usage
  • Time
  • Disabled

Usage: Fail back based on the amount of data passed over time. This is a good setting for when you have a dual-mode EVDO/WiMAX modem and you are going in and out of WiMAX coverage. If the router has failed over to EVDO it will wait until you have low data usage before bringing down the EVDO connection to check if a WiMAX connection can be made.

  • High (Rate: 80 KB/s. Time Period: 30 seconds.)
  • Normal (Rate: 20 KB/s. Time Period: 90 seconds.)
  • Low (Rate: 10 KB/s. Time Period: 240 seconds.)
  • Custom (Rate range: 1-100 KB/s. Time Period range: 10-300 seconds.)

Time: Fail back only after a set period of time. (Default: 90 seconds. Range: 10-300 seconds.) This is a good setting if you have a primary wired WAN connection and only use a modem for failover when your wired connection goes down. This ensures that the higher priority interface has remained online for a set period of time before it becomes active (in case the connection is dropping in and out, for example).

Disabled: Deactivate failback mode.

Immediate Mode: Fail back immediately whenever a higher priority interface is plugged in or when there is a priority change. Immediate failback returns you to the use of your preferred Internet source more quickly which may have advantages such as reducing the cost of a failover data plan, but it may cause more interruptions in your network than Usage or Time modes.

IP Overrides

IP overrides allow you to override IP settings after a device’s IP settings have been configured.

Only the fields that you fill out will be overridden. Override any of the following fields:

  • IP Address
  • Subnet Mask
  • Gateway IP
  • Primary DNS Server
  • Secondary DNS Server

IPv6 Settings

The IPv6 configuration allows you to enable and configure IPv6 for a WAN device. These settings should be configured in combination with the IPv6 LAN settings (go to Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks, select the LAN under Local IP Networks, and click Edit) to achieve the desired result.

This is a dual-stacked implementation of IPv6, so IPv6 and IPv4 are used alongside each other. If you enable IPv6, the router will not allow connections via IPv4. When IPv6 is enabled, some router features are no longer supported. These are:

  • RADIUS/TACACS+ accounting for wireless clients and admin/CLI login
  • IP Passthrough (not needed with IPv6)
  • NAT (not needed with IPv6)
  • Bounce pages
  • UPnP
  • Network Mobility
  • DHCP Relay
  • VRRP, GRE, GRE over IPSec, OSPF, NHRP
  • Syslog
  • SNMP over the WAN (LAN works)

There are two main types of IPv6 WAN connectivity: native (Auto and Static) and tunneling over IPv4 (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd).

  • Native – (Auto and Static) The upstream ISP routes IPv6 packets directly.
  • IPv6 tunneling – (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd) Each IPv6 packet is encapsulated by the router in an IPv4 packet and routed over an IPv4 route to a tunnel endpoint that decapsulates it and routes the IPv6 packet natively. The reply is encapsulated by the tunnel endpoint in an IPv4 packet and routed back over an IPv4 route. Some tunnel modes do not require upstream ISPs to route or even be aware of IPv6 traffic at all. Some modes are utilized by upstream ISPs to simplify the configuration and rollout of IPv6.

Enable IPv6 and select the desired IPv6 connection method for this WAN interface.

  • Disabled (default) – IPv6 disabled on this interface.
  • Auto – IPv6 will use automatic connection settings (if available).
  • Static – Input a specific IPv6 address for your WAN connection. This is provided by the ISP if it is supported.
  • 6to4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and transfers it to an automatic tunnel provider (if your ISP supports it).
  • 6in4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to the configured tunnel provider.
  • 6rd Tunnel (IPv6 rapid deployment) – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to a relay server provided by your ISP.

When you configure IPv6, you have the option to designate DNS Servers and Delegated Networks. Because of the dual-stack setup, these settings are optional: when configured for IPv6, the router will fall back to IPv4 settings when necessary.

DNS Servers

Each WAN device is required to connect IPv4 before connecting IPv6. Because of this, DNS servers are optional, as most IPv4 DNS servers will respond with AAAA records (128-bit IPv6 DNS records, most commonly used to map hostnames to the IPv6 address of the host) if requested. If no IPv6 DNS servers are configured, the system will fall back to the DNS servers provided by the IPv4 configuration.

Delegated Networks

A delegated network is an IPv6 network that is inherently provided by or closely tied to a WAN IP configuration. The IPv6 model is for each device to have end-to-end IP connectivity without relying on any translation mechanism. In order to achieve this, each client device on the LAN network needs to have a publicly routable IPv6 address.

Auto

IPv6 auto-configuration mode uses DHCPv6 and/or SLAAC to configure the IPv6 networks. When you select Auto, all of the following settings are optional (depending on your provider’s requirements):

  • PD Request Size – Prefix Delegation request size. This is the size of IPv6 network that will be requested from the ISP to delegate to LAN networks. (Default: 63)
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Static

As with IPv4, static configuration is available for situations where the WAN IPv6 topology is fixed.

  • IPv6 Address/CIDR – Input the IPv6 static IP address and mask length provided by your ISP (see the Wikipedia explanation of CIDR).
  • IPv6 Gateway IP – Input the IPv6 remote gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider/setup, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6to4 Tunnel

Out of the box, 6to4 is the simplest mode to enable full end-to-end IPv6 connectivity in an organization if the upstream ISP properly routes packets to and from the 6to4 unicast relay servers.

  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6in4 Tunnel

The 6in4 tunnel mode utilizes explicit IPv4 tunnel endpoints and encapsulates IPv6 packets using 41 as the specified protocol type in the IP header. A 6in4 tunnel broker provides a static IPv4 server endpoint, decapsulates packets, and provides routing for both egress and ingress IPv6 packets. Most tunnel brokers provide a facility to request delegated networks for use through the tunnel.

  • Tunnel Server IP – Input the tunnel server IP address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Local IPv6 Address – Input the local IPv6 address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6rd Tunnel

IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd) is a method of IPv6 site configuration derived from 6to4. It is different from 6to4 in that the ISP provides explicit 6rd infrastructure that handles the IPv4 ↔ IPv6 translation within the ISP network. 6rd is considered more reliable than 6to4 as the ISP explicitly maintains infrastructure to support tunneled IPv6 traffic over their IPv4 network.

  • 6rd Prefix – The 6rd prefix and prefix length should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Border Router Address – This address should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Common Prefix Mask – Input the number of common prefix bits that you can mask off of the WAN’s IPv4 address.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Ethernet Settings

While default settings for each WAN Ethernet port will be sufficient in most circumstances, you have the ability to control the following:

  • Connect Method: DHCP (Automatic), Static (Manual), or PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet).
  • MAC Address: You have the ability to change the MAC address, but typically this is unnecessary. You can match this address with your device’s address by clicking: “Clone Your PC’s MAC Address”.

Connect Method

Select the connection type that you need for this WAN connection. You may need to check with your ISP or system administrator for this information.

  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is the most common configuration. Your router’s Ethernet ports are automatically configured for DHCP connection. DHCP automatically assigns dynamic IP addresses to devices in your networks. This is preferable in most circumstances.
  • Static allows you to input a specific IP address for your WAN connection; this should be provided by the ISP if supported.
  • PPPoE should be configured with the username, password, and other settings provided by your ISP.

If you want to use a Static (Manual) or PPPoE connection, you will need to fill out additional information.

Static (Manual):

  • IPv4 Address
  • Subnet Mask
  • Gateway IP
  • Primary DNS Server
  • Secondary DNS Server

PPPoE:

  • Username
  • Password
  • Password Confirm
  • Service
  • Auth Type: None, PAP, or CHAP

Modem Settings

Not all modems will have all of the options shown below; the available options are specific to the modem type.

On Demand: When this mode is selected a connection to the Internet is made as needed. When this mode is not selected a connection to the Internet is always maintained.

IP WAN Subnet Filter: This feature will filter out any packets going to the modem that do not match the network (address and netmask).

Aggressive Reset: When Aggressive Reset is enabled the system will attempt to maintain a good modem connection. If the Internet has been unreachable for a period of time, a reset of the modem will occur in attempt to re-establish the connection.

Automatically check for new firmware: (Default: selected) The modem will automatically check for firmware updates by default.

Enable Aux Antenna: (Default: selected) Enable or disable the modem’s auxiliary diversity antenna. This should normally be left enabled.

GPS Signal Source: Select the antenna to be used for receiving GPS coordinates. Some products support a dedicated GPS antenna, while others use the auxiliary diversity antenna only (and some products support both).

Enable eHRPD: (Default: selected) Enable or disable the modem’s ability to connect via eHRPD (enhanced High Rate Packet Data) when connecting to a 3G EVDO network on Sprint. eHRPD routes EVDO traffic through the LTE systems, enabling easy transitions between LTE and EVDO. In rare cases it may make sense to bypass the LTE core, so this field allows you to disable eHRPD.

Modem Connection Mode: Specify how the modem should connect to the network. Not all options are available for all modems; this will default to Auto if an incompatible mode is selected.

  • Auto (all modes): Let the modem decide which network to use.
  • Auto 3G (3G or less): Let the modem decide which 2G or 3G network to use. Do not attempt to connect to LTE.
  • Force LTE: Connect to LTE only and do not attempt to connect to 3G or WiMAX.
  • Force WiMAX: Connect to WiMAX only and do not attempt to connect tot 3G or LTE.
  • Force 3G (EVDO, UMTS, HSPA): Connect to 3G network only.
  • Force 2G (1xRTT, EDGE, GPRS): Connect to 2G network only.

Network Selection Mode: Wireless carriers are assigned unique network identifying codes known as PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). To manually select a particular carrier, select the Manual radio button and enter the network PLMN. Choose from the following options:

  • None/No Change
  • Auto: Selected by default
  • Home only
  • Manual: Input the PLMN code

Functional Mode: Selects the functional mode of the modem. IPPT (IP passthrough) mode causes the modem to act as a transport, passing Internet data and IP address information between the modem and the Internet directly. NAT mode causes the modem to NAT the IP address information. Consequently, IPPT mode does not allow user access to the modem web UI and NAT mode does allow user access to the modem web UI.

  • None/No Change
  • IPPT
  • NAT

Network-Initiated Alerts: This field controls whether the Sprint network can disconnect the modem to apply updates, such as for PRL, modem firmware, or configuration events. These activities do not change any router settings, but the modem connection may be unavailable for periods of time while these updates occur. The modem may also require a reset after a modem firmware update is complete.

  • Disabled: The request to update will be refused.
  • When Disconnected: The request to update will only be performed when the modem is either in a disconnected state or dormant state. If the modem is not in one of these states when the request is received, then the router will remember the request and perform the update when the modem becomes disconnected/dormant.
  • On Schedule: The request to update will only be performed at the specified scheduled time, no matter what the state of the modem is.

Network-Initiated Schedule: When you select “On Schedule” for Network-Initiated Alerts, you also select a time from this dropdown list. Modem updates will take place at this scheduled time.

AT Config Script: Enter the AT commands to be used for carrier specific modem configuration settings. Each command must be entered on a separate line. The command and associated response will be logged, so you should check the system log to make sure there were no errors.

NOTE: AT Config Script should not be used unless told to do so by your modem’s cellular provider or by a support technician.

AT Dial Script: Enter the AT commands to be used in establishing a network connection. Each command must be entered on a separate line. All command responses must include “OK”, except the final command response, which must include “CONNECT”.

Example:

AT
ATDT*99***2#

WiMAX Settings

WiMAX Realm: Select from the following dropdown options:

  • Clear – clearwire-wmx.net
  • Rover – rover-wmx.net
  • Sprint 3G/4G – sprintpcs.com
  • Xohm –xohm.com
  • BridgeMAXX – bridgeMAXX.com
  • Time Warner Cable – mobile.rr.com
  • Comcast – mob.comcast.net

TTLS Authentication Mode: TTLS inner authentication protocol. Select from the following dropdown options:

  • MSCHAPv2/MD5 (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version2/Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
  • PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
  • CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)

TTLS Username: Username for TTLS authentication.

TTLS Password: Password for TTLS authentication.

WiMAX Authentication Identity: User ID on the network. Leave this blank unless your provider tells you otherwise.

CDMA Settings

These settings are usually specific to your wireless carrier’s private networks. You should not set these unless directed to by a carrier representative. If a field below is left blank, that particular setting will not be changed in the modem. You should only fill in fields that are required by your carrier.

  • Persist Settings: If this is not checked, these settings will only be in place until the router is rebooted or the modem is unplugged.
  • Active Profile: Select a number from 0-5 from the dropdown list.

The following fields can be left blank. If left blank they will remain unchanged in the modem.

  • NAI (Username@realm): Network Access Identifier. NAI is a standard system of identifying users who attempt to connect to a network.
  • AAA Shared Secret (Password): “Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting” password.
  • Verify AAA Shared Secret
  • HA Shared Secret: “Home Agent” shared secret.
  • Primary HA
  • Secondary HA
  • AAA SPI: AAA Security Parameter Index.
  • HA SPI: HA Security Parameter Index.

SIM/APN/Auth Settings

SIM PIN: PIN number for a GSM modem with a locked SIM.

Authentication Protocol: Set this only if your service provider requires a specific protocol and the Auto option chooses the wrong one. Choose from Auto, PAP, and CHAP and then input your username and password.

Access Point Configuration: Some wireless carriers provide multiple Access Point configurations that a modem can connect to. Some APN examples are ‘isp.cingular” and “vpn.com”.

  • Default: Let the router choose an APN automatically.
  • Default Override: Enter an APN by hand.
  • Select: This opens a table with 16 slots for APNs, each of which can be set as IP, IPV4V6, or IPV6. The default APN is marked with an asterisk (*). You can change the APN names, select a different APN, etc. For Verizon modems, only the third slot is editable. Changes made here are written to the modem, so a factory reset of the router will not impact these settings.

Update/Activate a Modem

Some 3G/4G modems can be updated and activated while plugged into the router. Updates and activation methods vary by modem model and service provider. Possible methods are: PRL Update, Activation, and FUMO. All supported methods will be displayed when you select your modem and click “Control” to open the “Update/Activate” window. If no methods are displayed for your device then you will need to update and activate your device externally.

To update or activate a modem, select the modem in the WAN Interfaces table and click “Control”.

The modem does not support Update/Activate methods: A message will state that there is no support for PRL Update, Activation, or FUMO.

The modem supports Update/Activate methods: A message will display showing options for each supported method:

  • Modem Activation / Update: Activate, Reactivate, or Upgrade Configuration.
  • Preferred Roaming List (PRL) Update
  • Firmware Update Management Object (FUMO)

Click the appropriate icon to start the process.

If the modem is connected when you start an operation the router will automatically disconnect it. The router may start another modem as a failover measure. When the operation is done the modem will go back to an idle state, at which point the router may restart it depending on failover and failback settings.

NOTE: Only one operation is supported at a time. If you try to start the same operation on the same modem twice the UI will not report failure and the request will finish normally when the original request is done. However if you try to start a different operation or use a different modem, this second request will fail without interfering with the pending operation.

Process Timeout: If the process fails an error message will display.

Activation has a 3-minute timeout, PRL update has a 4-minute timeout, and FUMO has a 10-minute timeout.

Update Modem Firmware

Click on the Firmware button to open the Modem Firmware Upgrade window. This will show whether there is new modem firmware available.

If you select Automatic (Internet) the firmware will be updated automatically. Use Manual Firmware Upgrade to instead manually upload firmware from a local computer or device.

Reset the Modem

Click on the Reset button to power cycle the modem. This will have the same effect as unplugging the modem.

Configuration Rules (Advanced)

This section allows you to create general rules that apply to the Internet connections of a particular type. These can be general or very specific. For example, you could create a rule that applies to all 3G/4G modems, or a rule that only applies to an Internet source with a particular MAC address.

The Configuration Rules list shows all rules that you have created, as well as all of the default rules. These are listed in the order they will be applied. The most general rules are listed at the top, and the most specific rules are at the bottom. The router goes down the list and applies all rules that fit for attached Internet sources. Configuration settings farther down the list will override previous settings.

Select any of these rules and click “Edit” to change the settings for a rule. To create a new rule, click “Add.”

WAN Configuration Rule Editor

After clicking “Add” or “Edit,” you will see a popup with the following tabs:

  • Filter Criteria
  • General Settings
  • IP Overrides
  • IPv6 Settings
  • Ethernet Settings
  • Modem Settings
  • WiMAX Settings
  • CDMA Settings
  • SIM/APN/Auth Settings

Filter Criteria

If you are creating a new rule, begin by setting the Filter Criteria . Create a name for your rule and the condition for which the rule applies:

  • Rule Name: Create a name meaningful to you. This name is optional.

Make a selection for “When,” “Condition,” and “Value” to create a condition for your rule. The condition will be in the form of these examples:

When Condition Value
Port is USB Port 1
Type is not WiMAX
  • When:
    • Port – Select by the physical port on the router that you are plugging the modem into (e.g., “USB Port 2”).
    • Manufacturer – Select by the modem manufacturer, such as Sierra Wireless.
    • Model – Set your rule according to the specific model of modem.
    • Type – Select by type of Internet source (Ethernet, LTE, Modem, Wireless as WAN, WiMAX).
    • Serial Number – Select 3G or LTE modem by the serial number.
    • MAC Address – Select WiMAX modem by MAC Address.
    • Unique ID – Select by ID. This is generated by the router and displayed when the device is connected to the router.
  • Condition: Select “is,” “is not,” “starts with,” “contains,” or “ends with” to create your condition’s statement.
  • Value: If the correct values are available, select from the dropdown list. You may need to manually input the value.

Once you have established the condition for your configuration rule, choose from the other tabs to set the desired configuration. All of the tabs have the same configuration options shown above in the WAN Configuration section (i.e., the options for Configuration Rules are the same as they are for individual devices).

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Yes, you can get a Static IP on the Verizon Wireless Network, contact an USAT sales representative or a Verizon Wireless representative or reseller to learn more about this process.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

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Yes, the GX440 fully supports fallback to 3G and 2G networks. The default setting for the GX440, when it comes to network service preference, is “”LTE Preferred””, meaning the GX440 will always look to connect to a LTE service first, if available. If LTE service is not available, then the GX440 will connect to the next fastest service available.

Customers who purchase the GX440, but who do not yet have LTE service in their area, there is a configuration option under the “”WAN/Cellular”” tab in ACEmanager 4.0 to set the GX440 to “”CDMA Only””. When this configuration is used the GX440 will not actively scan for LTE service.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

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Verizon: Band 13 – UL 777-787Mhz, DL 746-756Mhz

AT&T (future product): Band 17 – UL 704-716Mhz, DL 734-746Mhz (also Band 1 and Band 4 used outside the US

GX440 supports Verizon OR AT&T LTE frequencies, different embedded modules are required for Verizon and AT&T, therefore, there will be two distinct GX440 SKUs

GX440 does NOT support public safety Band 14 (D block) – UL 788-798Mhz, DL 758-768Mhz

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

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IPv6 Settings

This is the product manual section for IPv6 Settings for the WAN. To edit these settings, go to Internet → Connection Manager. Select a WAN Interface and click on Edit to open up the WAN Configuration editor. IPv6 Settings is one of the tabs:

IPv6 configuration window


The IPv6 configuration allows you to enable and configure IPv6 for a WAN device. These settings should be configured in combination with the IPv6 LAN settings (go to Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks, select the LAN under Local IP Networks, and click Edit) to achieve the desired result.

This is a dual-stacked implementation of IPv6, so IPv6 and IPv4 are used alongside each other. If you enable IPv6, the router will not allow connections via IPv4. When IPv6 is enabled, some router features are no longer supported. These are:

  • RADIUS/TACACS+ accounting for wireless clients and admin/CLI login
  • IP Passthrough (not needed with IPv6)
  • NAT (not needed with IPv6)
  • Bounce pages
  • UPnP
  • Network Mobility
  • DHCP Relay
  • VRRP, GRE, GRE over IPSec, OSPF, NHRP
  • Syslog
  • SNMP over the WAN (LAN works)

There are two main types of IPv6 WAN connectivity: native (Auto and Static) and tunneling over IPv4 (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd).

  • Native – (Auto and Static) The upstream ISP routes IPv6 packets directly.
  • IPv6 tunneling – (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd) Each IPv6 packet is encapsulated by the router in an IPv4 packet and routed over an IPv4 route to a tunnel endpoint that decapsulates it and routes the IPv6 packet natively. The reply is encapsulated by the tunnel endpoint in an IPv4 packet and routed back over an IPv4 route. Some tunnel modes do not require upstream ISPs to route or even be aware of IPv6 traffic at all. Some modes are utilized by upstream ISPs to simplify the configuration and rollout of IPv6.

Enable IPv6 and select the desired IPv6 connection method for this WAN interface.

  • Disabled (default) – IPv6 disabled on this interface.
  • Auto – IPv6 will use automatic connection settings (if available).
  • Static – Input a specific IPv6 address for your WAN connection. This is provided by the ISP if it is supported.
  • 6to4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and transfers it to an automatic tunnel provider (if your ISP supports it).
  • 6in4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to the configured tunnel provider.
  • 6rd Tunnel (IPv6 rapid deployment) – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to a relay server provided by your ISP.

When you configure IPv6, you have the option to designate DNS Servers and Delegated Networks. Because of the dual-stack setup, these settings are optional: when configured for IPv6, the router will fall back to IPv4 settings when necessary.

DNS Servers

Each WAN device is required to connect IPv4 before connecting IPv6. Because of this, DNS servers are optional, as most IPv4 DNS servers will respond with AAAA records (128-bit IPv6 DNS records, most commonly used to map hostnames to the IPv6 address of the host) if requested. If no IPv6 DNS servers are configured, the system will fall back to the DNS servers provided by the IPv4 configuration.

Delegated Networks

A delegated network is an IPv6 network that is inherently provided by or closely tied to a WAN IP configuration. The IPv6 model is for each device to have end-to-end IP connectivity without relying on any translation mechanism. In order to achieve this, each client device on the LAN network needs to have a publicly routable IPv6 address.

Auto

IPv6 auto-configuration mode uses DHCPv6 and/or SLAAC to configure the IPv6 networks. When you select Auto, all of the following settings are optional (depending on your provider’s requirements):

  • PD Request Size – Prefix Delegation request size. This is the size of IPv6 network that will be requested from the ISP to delegate to LAN networks. (Default: 63)
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Static

As with IPv4, static configuration is available for situations where the WAN IPv6 topology is fixed.

  • IPv6 Address/CIDR – Input the IPv6 static IP address and mask length provided by your ISP (see the Wikipedia explanation of CIDR).
  • IPv6 Gateway IP – Input the IPv6 remote gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider/setup, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6to4 Tunnel

Out of the box, 6to4 is the simplest mode to enable full end-to-end IPv6 connectivity in an organization if the upstream ISP properly routes packets to and from the 6to4 unicast relay servers.

  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6in4 Tunnel

The 6in4 tunnel mode utilizes explicit IPv4 tunnel endpoints and encapsulates IPv6 packets using 41 as the specified protocol type in the IP header. A 6in4 tunnel broker provides a static IPv4 server endpoint, decapsulates packets, and provides routing for both egress and ingress IPv6 packets. Most tunnel brokers provide a facility to request delegated networks for use through the tunnel.

  • Tunnel Server IP – Input the tunnel server IP address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Local IPv6 Address – Input the local IPv6 address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6rd Tunnel

IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd) is a method of IPv6 site configuration derived from 6to4. It is different from 6to4 in that the ISP provides explicit 6rd infrastructure that handles the IPv4 ↔ IPv6 translation within the ISP network. 6rd is considered more reliable than 6to4 as the ISP explicitly maintains infrastructure to support tunneled IPv6 traffic over their IPv4 network.

  • 6rd Prefix – The 6rd prefix and prefix length should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Border Router Address – This address should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Common Prefix Mask – Input the number of common prefix bits that you can mask off of the WAN’s IPv4 address.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Permalink


Connection Manager


The router can establish an uplink via Ethernet, WiFi as WAN, or 3G/4G modems (integrated or external USB). If the primary WAN connection fails, the router will automatically attempt to bring up a new link on another device: this feature is called failover. If Load Balance is enabled, multiple WAN devices may establish a link concurrently.

WAN Interfaces

This is a list of the available interfaces used to access the Internet. You can enable, stop, or start devices from this section. By using the priority arrows (the arrows in the boxes to the left – these show if you have more than one available interface), you can set the interface the router uses by default and the order that it allows failover.

In the example shown, Ethernet is set as the primary Internet source, while a 4G LTE modem is attached for failover. The Ethernet is “Connected” while the LTE modem is “Available” for failover. A WiFi-as-WAN interface is also attached and “Available”.

  • Load Balance: If this is enabled, the router will use multiple WAN interfaces to increase the data transfer throughput by using any connected WAN interface consecutively. Selecting Load Balance will automatically start the WAN interface and add it to the pool of WAN interfaces to use for data transfer. Turning off Load Balance for an active WAN interface may require the user to restart any current browsing session.
  • Enabled: Selected by default. Deselect to disable an interface.

Click on the small box at the top of the list to select/deselect all devices for either Load Balance or Enabled.

Click on a device in the list to reveal additional information about that device.

Selecting a device reveals the following information:

  • State (Connected, Available, etc.)
  • Port
  • UID (Unique identifier. This could be a name or number/letter combination.)
  • IP Address
  • Gateway
  • Netmask
  • Stats: bytes in, bytes out
  • Uptime

Click “Edit” to view configuration options for the selected device. For 3G/4G modems, click “Control” to view options to activate or update the device.

WAN Configuration

Select a WAN interface and click on Edit to open the WAN Configuration editor. The tabs available in this editor are specific to the particular WAN interface types.

General Settings

Device Settings
  • Enabled: Select/deselect to enable/disable.
  • Force NAT: Normally NAT is part of the Routing Mode setting which is selected on the LAN side in Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks. Select this option to force NAT whenever this WAN device is being used.
  • Priority: This number controls failover and failback order. The lower the number, the higher the priority and the more use the device will get. This number will change when you move devices around with the priority arrows in the WAN Interfaces list.
  • Load Balance: Select to allow this device to be available for the Load Balance pool.
  • Download bandwidth: Defines the default download bandwidth for use in Load Balance and QoS (quality of service, or traffic shaping) algorithms. (Range: 128 Kb/s to 1 Gb/s.)
  • Upload bandwidth: Defines the default upload bandwidth for use in Load Balance and QoS (quality of service, or traffic shaping) algorithms. (Range: 128 Kb/s to 1 Gb/s.)
  • MTU: Maximum transmission unit. This is the size of the largest protocol data unit that the device can pass. (Range: 46 to 1500 Bytes.)
  • Hostname (This only shows for certain devices.)
IPv4 Failure Check (Advanced)

If this is enabled, the router will check that the highest priority active WAN interface can get to the Internet even if the WAN connection is not actively being used. If the interface goes down, the router will switch to the next highest priority interface available. If this is not selected, the router will still failover to the next highest priority interface but only after the user has attempted to get out to the Internet and failed.

Idle Check Interval: The amount of time between each check. (Default: 30 seconds. Range: 10-3600 seconds.)

Monitor while connected: (Default: Off) Select from the following dropdown options:

  • Passive DNS (modem only): The router will take no action until data is detected that is destined for the WAN. When this data is detected, the data will be sent and the router will check for received data for 2 seconds. If no data is received the router behaves as described below under Active DNS.
  • Active DNS (modem only): A DNS request will be sent to the DNS servers. If no data is received, the DNS request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. (The first 2 requests will be directed at the Primary DNS server and the second 2 requests will be directed at the Secondary DNS server.) If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected and failover will occur.
  • Active Ping: A ping request will be sent to the Ping Target. If no data is received, the ping request will be retried 4 times at 5-second intervals. If still no data is received, the device will be disconnected and failover will occur. When “Active Ping” is selected, the next line gives an estimate of data usage in this form: “Active Ping could use as much as 9.3 MB of data per month.” This amount depends on the Idle Check Interval.
  • Off: Once the link is established the router takes no action to verify that it is still up.

Ping IP Address: If you selected “Active Ping”, you will need to input an IP address. This must be an address that can be reached through your WAN connection (modem/Ethernet). Some ISPs/Carriers block certain addresses, so choose an address that all of your WAN connections can use. For best results, select an established public IP address. For example, you might ping Google Public DNS at 8.8.8.8 or Level 3 Communications at 4.2.2.2.

IPv6 Failure Check (Advanced)

The settings for IPv6 Failure Check match those for IPv4 Failure Check except that the IP address for Active Ping is an IPv6 address.

Failback Configuration (Advanced)

This is used to configure failback, which is the ability to go back to a higher priority WAN interface if it regains connection to its network.

Select the Failback Mode from the following options:

  • Usage
  • Time
  • Disabled

Usage: Fail back based on the amount of data passed over time. This is a good setting for when you have a dual-mode EVDO/WiMAX modem and you are going in and out of WiMAX coverage. If the router has failed over to EVDO it will wait until you have low data usage before bringing down the EVDO connection to check if a WiMAX connection can be made.

  • High (Rate: 80 KB/s. Time Period: 30 seconds.)
  • Normal (Rate: 20 KB/s. Time Period: 90 seconds.)
  • Low (Rate: 10 KB/s. Time Period: 240 seconds.)
  • Custom (Rate range: 1-100 KB/s. Time Period range: 10-300 seconds.)

Time: Fail back only after a set period of time. (Default: 90 seconds. Range: 10-300 seconds.) This is a good setting if you have a primary wired WAN connection and only use a modem for failover when your wired connection goes down. This ensures that the higher priority interface has remained online for a set period of time before it becomes active (in case the connection is dropping in and out, for example).

Disabled: Deactivate failback mode.

Immediate Mode: Fail back immediately whenever a higher priority interface is plugged in or when there is a priority change. Immediate failback returns you to the use of your preferred Internet source more quickly which may have advantages such as reducing the cost of a failover data plan, but it may cause more interruptions in your network than Usage or Time modes.

IP Overrides

IP overrides allow you to override IP settings after a device’s IP settings have been configured.

Only the fields that you fill out will be overridden. Override any of the following fields:

  • IP Address
  • Subnet Mask
  • Gateway IP
  • Primary DNS Server
  • Secondary DNS Server

IPv6 Settings

The IPv6 configuration allows you to enable and configure IPv6 for a WAN device. These settings should be configured in combination with the IPv6 LAN settings (go to Network Settings → WiFi / Local Networks, select the LAN under Local IP Networks, and click Edit) to achieve the desired result.

This is a dual-stacked implementation of IPv6, so IPv6 and IPv4 are used alongside each other. If you enable IPv6, the router will not allow connections via IPv4. When IPv6 is enabled, some router features are no longer supported. These are:

  • RADIUS/TACACS+ accounting for wireless clients and admin/CLI login
  • IP Passthrough (not needed with IPv6)
  • NAT (not needed with IPv6)
  • Bounce pages
  • UPnP
  • Network Mobility
  • DHCP Relay
  • VRRP, GRE, GRE over IPSec, OSPF, NHRP
  • Syslog
  • SNMP over the WAN (LAN works)

There are two main types of IPv6 WAN connectivity: native (Auto and Static) and tunneling over IPv4 (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd).

  • Native – (Auto and Static) The upstream ISP routes IPv6 packets directly.
  • IPv6 tunneling – (6to4, 6in4, and 6rd) Each IPv6 packet is encapsulated by the router in an IPv4 packet and routed over an IPv4 route to a tunnel endpoint that decapsulates it and routes the IPv6 packet natively. The reply is encapsulated by the tunnel endpoint in an IPv4 packet and routed back over an IPv4 route. Some tunnel modes do not require upstream ISPs to route or even be aware of IPv6 traffic at all. Some modes are utilized by upstream ISPs to simplify the configuration and rollout of IPv6.

Enable IPv6 and select the desired IPv6 connection method for this WAN interface.

  • Disabled (default) – IPv6 disabled on this interface.
  • Auto – IPv6 will use automatic connection settings (if available).
  • Static – Input a specific IPv6 address for your WAN connection. This is provided by the ISP if it is supported.
  • 6to4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and transfers it to an automatic tunnel provider (if your ISP supports it).
  • 6in4 Tunnel – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to the configured tunnel provider.
  • 6rd Tunnel (IPv6 rapid deployment) – Encapsulates the IPv6 data and sends it to a relay server provided by your ISP.

When you configure IPv6, you have the option to designate DNS Servers and Delegated Networks. Because of the dual-stack setup, these settings are optional: when configured for IPv6, the router will fall back to IPv4 settings when necessary.

DNS Servers

Each WAN device is required to connect IPv4 before connecting IPv6. Because of this, DNS servers are optional, as most IPv4 DNS servers will respond with AAAA records (128-bit IPv6 DNS records, most commonly used to map hostnames to the IPv6 address of the host) if requested. If no IPv6 DNS servers are configured, the system will fall back to the DNS servers provided by the IPv4 configuration.

Delegated Networks

A delegated network is an IPv6 network that is inherently provided by or closely tied to a WAN IP configuration. The IPv6 model is for each device to have end-to-end IP connectivity without relying on any translation mechanism. In order to achieve this, each client device on the LAN network needs to have a publicly routable IPv6 address.

Auto

IPv6 auto-configuration mode uses DHCPv6 and/or SLAAC to configure the IPv6 networks. When you select Auto, all of the following settings are optional (depending on your provider’s requirements):

  • PD Request Size – Prefix Delegation request size. This is the size of IPv6 network that will be requested from the ISP to delegate to LAN networks. (Default: 63)
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Static

As with IPv4, static configuration is available for situations where the WAN IPv6 topology is fixed.

  • IPv6 Address/CIDR – Input the IPv6 static IP address and mask length provided by your ISP (see the Wikipedia explanation of CIDR).
  • IPv6 Gateway IP – Input the IPv6 remote gateway IP address provided by your ISP.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider/setup, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6to4 Tunnel

Out of the box, 6to4 is the simplest mode to enable full end-to-end IPv6 connectivity in an organization if the upstream ISP properly routes packets to and from the 6to4 unicast relay servers.

  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6in4 Tunnel

The 6in4 tunnel mode utilizes explicit IPv4 tunnel endpoints and encapsulates IPv6 packets using 41 as the specified protocol type in the IP header. A 6in4 tunnel broker provides a static IPv4 server endpoint, decapsulates packets, and provides routing for both egress and ingress IPv6 packets. Most tunnel brokers provide a facility to request delegated networks for use through the tunnel.

  • Tunnel Server IP – Input the tunnel server IP address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Local IPv6 Address – Input the local IPv6 address provided by your tunnel service.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

6rd Tunnel

IPv6 Rapid Deployment (6rd) is a method of IPv6 site configuration derived from 6to4. It is different from 6to4 in that the ISP provides explicit 6rd infrastructure that handles the IPv4 ↔ IPv6 translation within the ISP network. 6rd is considered more reliable than 6to4 as the ISP explicitly maintains infrastructure to support tunneled IPv6 traffic over their IPv4 network.

  • 6rd Prefix – The 6rd prefix and prefix length should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Border Router Address – This address should be supplied by your ISP.
  • IPv4 Common Prefix Mask – Input the number of common prefix bits that you can mask off of the WAN’s IPv4 address.
  • Primary IPv6 DNS Server – (optional) Depending on your provider, this may be required. This only takes effect if the default global DNS setting on the Network Settings → DNS page is “Automatic”.
  • Additional IPv6 DNS Server – Secondary DNS server.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – (optional) Network available for delegation to LANs. Depending on your provider, this may be required. Prefixes specified here only take effect if those supplied by the connection are insufficient to configure your LANs.
  • Delegated IPv6 Network – Additional network available for delegation to LANs.

Example Configuration:

Ethernet Settings

While default settings for each WAN Ethernet port will be sufficient in most circumstances, you have the ability to control the following:

  • Connect Method: DHCP (Automatic), Static (Manual), or PPPoE (Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet).
  • MAC Address: You have the ability to change the MAC address, but typically this is unnecessary. You can match this address with your device’s address by clicking: “Clone Your PC’s MAC Address”.

Connect Method

Select the connection type that you need for this WAN connection. You may need to check with your ISP or system administrator for this information.

  • DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol) is the most common configuration. Your router’s Ethernet ports are automatically configured for DHCP connection. DHCP automatically assigns dynamic IP addresses to devices in your networks. This is preferable in most circumstances.
  • Static allows you to input a specific IP address for your WAN connection; this should be provided by the ISP if supported.
  • PPPoE should be configured with the username, password, and other settings provided by your ISP.

If you want to use a Static (Manual) or PPPoE connection, you will need to fill out additional information.

Static (Manual):

  • IPv4 Address
  • Subnet Mask
  • Gateway IP
  • Primary DNS Server
  • Secondary DNS Server

PPPoE:

  • Username
  • Password
  • Password Confirm
  • Service
  • Auth Type: None, PAP, or CHAP

Modem Settings

Not all modems will have all of the options shown below; the available options are specific to the modem type.

On Demand: When this mode is selected a connection to the Internet is made as needed. When this mode is not selected a connection to the Internet is always maintained.

IP WAN Subnet Filter: This feature will filter out any packets going to the modem that do not match the network (address and netmask).

Aggressive Reset: When Aggressive Reset is enabled the system will attempt to maintain a good modem connection. If the Internet has been unreachable for a period of time, a reset of the modem will occur in attempt to re-establish the connection.

Automatically check for new firmware: (Default: selected) The modem will automatically check for firmware updates by default.

Enable Aux Antenna: (Default: selected) Enable or disable the modem’s auxiliary diversity antenna. This should normally be left enabled.

GPS Signal Source: Select the antenna to be used for receiving GPS coordinates. Some products support a dedicated GPS antenna, while others use the auxiliary diversity antenna only (and some products support both).

Enable eHRPD: (Default: selected) Enable or disable the modem’s ability to connect via eHRPD (enhanced High Rate Packet Data) when connecting to a 3G EVDO network on Sprint. eHRPD routes EVDO traffic through the LTE systems, enabling easy transitions between LTE and EVDO. In rare cases it may make sense to bypass the LTE core, so this field allows you to disable eHRPD.

Modem Connection Mode: Specify how the modem should connect to the network. Not all options are available for all modems; this will default to Auto if an incompatible mode is selected.

  • Auto (all modes): Let the modem decide which network to use.
  • Auto 3G (3G or less): Let the modem decide which 2G or 3G network to use. Do not attempt to connect to LTE.
  • Force LTE: Connect to LTE only and do not attempt to connect to 3G or WiMAX.
  • Force WiMAX: Connect to WiMAX only and do not attempt to connect tot 3G or LTE.
  • Force 3G (EVDO, UMTS, HSPA): Connect to 3G network only.
  • Force 2G (1xRTT, EDGE, GPRS): Connect to 2G network only.

Network Selection Mode: Wireless carriers are assigned unique network identifying codes known as PLMN (Public Land Mobile Network). To manually select a particular carrier, select the Manual radio button and enter the network PLMN. Choose from the following options:

  • None/No Change
  • Auto: Selected by default
  • Home only
  • Manual: Input the PLMN code

Functional Mode: Selects the functional mode of the modem. IPPT (IP passthrough) mode causes the modem to act as a transport, passing Internet data and IP address information between the modem and the Internet directly. NAT mode causes the modem to NAT the IP address information. Consequently, IPPT mode does not allow user access to the modem web UI and NAT mode does allow user access to the modem web UI.

  • None/No Change
  • IPPT
  • NAT

Network-Initiated Alerts: This field controls whether the Sprint network can disconnect the modem to apply updates, such as for PRL, modem firmware, or configuration events. These activities do not change any router settings, but the modem connection may be unavailable for periods of time while these updates occur. The modem may also require a reset after a modem firmware update is complete.

  • Disabled: The request to update will be refused.
  • When Disconnected: The request to update will only be performed when the modem is either in a disconnected state or dormant state. If the modem is not in one of these states when the request is received, then the router will remember the request and perform the update when the modem becomes disconnected/dormant.
  • On Schedule: The request to update will only be performed at the specified scheduled time, no matter what the state of the modem is.

Network-Initiated Schedule: When you select “On Schedule” for Network-Initiated Alerts, you also select a time from this dropdown list. Modem updates will take place at this scheduled time.

AT Config Script: Enter the AT commands to be used for carrier specific modem configuration settings. Each command must be entered on a separate line. The command and associated response will be logged, so you should check the system log to make sure there were no errors.

NOTE: AT Config Script should not be used unless told to do so by your modem’s cellular provider or by a support technician.

AT Dial Script: Enter the AT commands to be used in establishing a network connection. Each command must be entered on a separate line. All command responses must include “OK”, except the final command response, which must include “CONNECT”.

Example:

AT
ATDT*99***2#

WiMAX Settings

WiMAX Realm: Select from the following dropdown options:

  • Clear – clearwire-wmx.net
  • Rover – rover-wmx.net
  • Sprint 3G/4G – sprintpcs.com
  • Xohm –xohm.com
  • BridgeMAXX – bridgeMAXX.com
  • Time Warner Cable – mobile.rr.com
  • Comcast – mob.comcast.net

TTLS Authentication Mode: TTLS inner authentication protocol. Select from the following dropdown options:

  • MSCHAPv2/MD5 (Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol version2/Message-Digest Algorithm 5)
  • PAP (Password Authentication Protocol)
  • CHAP (Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol)

TTLS Username: Username for TTLS authentication.

TTLS Password: Password for TTLS authentication.

WiMAX Authentication Identity: User ID on the network. Leave this blank unless your provider tells you otherwise.

CDMA Settings

These settings are usually specific to your wireless carrier’s private networks. You should not set these unless directed to by a carrier representative. If a field below is left blank, that particular setting will not be changed in the modem. You should only fill in fields that are required by your carrier.

  • Persist Settings: If this is not checked, these settings will only be in place until the router is rebooted or the modem is unplugged.
  • Active Profile: Select a number from 0-5 from the dropdown list.

The following fields can be left blank. If left blank they will remain unchanged in the modem.

  • NAI (Username@realm): Network Access Identifier. NAI is a standard system of identifying users who attempt to connect to a network.
  • AAA Shared Secret (Password): “Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting” password.
  • Verify AAA Shared Secret
  • HA Shared Secret: “Home Agent” shared secret.
  • Primary HA
  • Secondary HA
  • AAA SPI: AAA Security Parameter Index.
  • HA SPI: HA Security Parameter Index.

SIM/APN/Auth Settings

SIM PIN: PIN number for a GSM modem with a locked SIM.

Authentication Protocol: Set this only if your service provider requires a specific protocol and the Auto option chooses the wrong one. Choose from Auto, PAP, and CHAP and then input your username and password.

Access Point Configuration: Some wireless carriers provide multiple Access Point configurations that a modem can connect to. Some APN examples are ‘isp.cingular” and “vpn.com”.

  • Default: Let the router choose an APN automatically.
  • Default Override: Enter an APN by hand.
  • Select: This opens a table with 16 slots for APNs, each of which can be set as IP, IPV4V6, or IPV6. The default APN is marked with an asterisk (*). You can change the APN names, select a different APN, etc. For Verizon modems, only the third slot is editable. Changes made here are written to the modem, so a factory reset of the router will not impact these settings.

Update/Activate a Modem

Some 3G/4G modems can be updated and activated while plugged into the router. Updates and activation methods vary by modem model and service provider. Possible methods are: PRL Update, Activation, and FUMO. All supported methods will be displayed when you select your modem and click “Control” to open the “Update/Activate” window. If no methods are displayed for your device then you will need to update and activate your device externally.

To update or activate a modem, select the modem in the WAN Interfaces table and click “Control”.

The modem does not support Update/Activate methods: A message will state that there is no support for PRL Update, Activation, or FUMO.

The modem supports Update/Activate methods: A message will display showing options for each supported method:

  • Modem Activation / Update: Activate, Reactivate, or Upgrade Configuration.
  • Preferred Roaming List (PRL) Update
  • Firmware Update Management Object (FUMO)

Click the appropriate icon to start the process.

If the modem is connected when you start an operation the router will automatically disconnect it. The router may start another modem as a failover measure. When the operation is done the modem will go back to an idle state, at which point the router may restart it depending on failover and failback settings.

NOTE: Only one operation is supported at a time. If you try to start the same operation on the same modem twice the UI will not report failure and the request will finish normally when the original request is done. However if you try to start a different operation or use a different modem, this second request will fail without interfering with the pending operation.

Process Timeout: If the process fails an error message will display.

Activation has a 3-minute timeout, PRL update has a 4-minute timeout, and FUMO has a 10-minute timeout.

Update Modem Firmware

Click on the Firmware button to open the Modem Firmware Upgrade window. This will show whether there is new modem firmware available.

If you select Automatic (Internet) the firmware will be updated automatically. Use Manual Firmware Upgrade to instead manually upload firmware from a local computer or device.

Reset the Modem

Click on the Reset button to power cycle the modem. This will have the same effect as unplugging the modem.

Configuration Rules (Advanced)

This section allows you to create general rules that apply to the Internet connections of a particular type. These can be general or very specific. For example, you could create a rule that applies to all 3G/4G modems, or a rule that only applies to an Internet source with a particular MAC address.

The Configuration Rules list shows all rules that you have created, as well as all of the default rules. These are listed in the order they will be applied. The most general rules are listed at the top, and the most specific rules are at the bottom. The router goes down the list and applies all rules that fit for attached Internet sources. Configuration settings farther down the list will override previous settings.

Select any of these rules and click “Edit” to change the settings for a rule. To create a new rule, click “Add.”

WAN Configuration Rule Editor

After clicking “Add” or “Edit,” you will see a popup with the following tabs:

  • Filter Criteria
  • General Settings
  • IP Overrides
  • IPv6 Settings
  • Ethernet Settings
  • Modem Settings
  • WiMAX Settings
  • CDMA Settings
  • SIM/APN/Auth Settings

Filter Criteria

If you are creating a new rule, begin by setting the Filter Criteria . Create a name for your rule and the condition for which the rule applies:

  • Rule Name: Create a name meaningful to you. This name is optional.

Make a selection for “When,” “Condition,” and “Value” to create a condition for your rule. The condition will be in the form of these examples:

When Condition Value
Port is USB Port 1
Type is not WiMAX
  • When:
    • Port – Select by the physical port on the router that you are plugging the modem into (e.g., “USB Port 2”).
    • Manufacturer – Select by the modem manufacturer, such as Sierra Wireless.
    • Model – Set your rule according to the specific model of modem.
    • Type – Select by type of Internet source (Ethernet, LTE, Modem, Wireless as WAN, WiMAX).
    • Serial Number – Select 3G or LTE modem by the serial number.
    • MAC Address – Select WiMAX modem by MAC Address.
    • Unique ID – Select by ID. This is generated by the router and displayed when the device is connected to the router.
  • Condition: Select “is,” “is not,” “starts with,” “contains,” or “ends with” to create your condition’s statement.
  • Value: If the correct values are available, select from the dropdown list. You may need to manually input the value.

Once you have established the condition for your configuration rule, choose from the other tabs to set the desired configuration. All of the tabs have the same configuration options shown above in the WAN Configuration section (i.e., the options for Configuration Rules are the same as they are for individual devices).

Permalink


Router Firmware Upgrade: Best Practices

Products Supported: Series 3 Click here to identify your router.


Quick Links

Summary

Configuration

Best Practices

Related Articles


Summary

This article provides instructions on how to upgrade your Series 3 Cradlepoint router through the local device and through Enterprise Cloud Manager(ECM). Best practices regarding firmware upgrades are also listed within this article.

Caution: Updating the firmware can permanently damage your router. The upgrade process will take several minutes. Do not unplug your router from the provided power supply during this process.

Note: Downgrading firmware to a version lower than 5.2.0 will require resetting the router to factory default settings.


Configuration

Configuration Difficulty: Easy

Local Router Upgrade

Automatically Upgrading from 5.4.x or Earlier

Note: The device has to be on the internet to update automatically

  • Step 1: Log into the router’s Setup Page. For help with logging in please click here.
  • Step 2: Navigate across the top menus to System Settings>System Software
User-added image
  • Step 3: Press the Automatic(Internet) button.
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Automatically Upgrading from 6.0.x or Later

Note: The device has to be on the internet to update automatically

  • Step 1: Log into the router’s Setup Page. For help with logging in please click here.
  • Step 2: Navigate across the left-hand menus to System>System Control>System Firmware
User-added image
  • Step 3: Press the Automatic(Internet) button.
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Downloading Firmware for Manual Upgrade

Note: These instructions are only for manual firmware upgrades. You do not need to download firmware when upgrading automatically or with ECM.

  • Step 1: Log into your Connect Portal account. The login page can be found here.
  • Step 2: Click the menu button. Hover over My Support and click Firmware Downloads.
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  • Step 3: Select the model of your router from the drop down menu.
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  • Step 4: Click download on the firmware version you are updating to
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Manually Upgrading from 5.4.x or Earlier
  • Step 1: Log into the router’s Setup Page. For help with logging in please click here.
  • Step 2: Navigate across the top menus to System Settings>System Software
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  • Step 3: Press the Manual Firmware Upload button.
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  • Step 4: In the box that appears press Choose File and use the pop up window to navigate to the firmware file
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  • Step 5: Press Begin Firmware Update
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Manually Upgrading from 6.0.x or Later
  • Step 1: Log into the router’s Setup Page. For help with logging in please click here.
  • Step 2: Navigate across the left-hand menu to System>System Control>System Firmware
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  • Step 3: Press the Manual Firmware Upload button.
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  • Step 4: In the box that appears press Select Firmware File and use the pop up window to navigate to the firmware file
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  • Step 5: Press Begin Firmware Update
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ECM Upgrade

  • Step 1: Log into your Enterprise Cloud Manager account. The login page can be found here.
  • Step 2: Navigate across the left-hand menu to Groups.
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  • Step 3: Create a new group for the device using the firmware the device is currently on.
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  • Step 4: Navigate to Devices and select the router. Press the move button and put it in the new group.
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  • Step 5: Navigate back to the groups page and press firmware. Select the firmware you would like to upgrade to.
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  • Step 6: Press Run Now
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Best Practices

Configuration Backup

It is recommended that before upgrade you backup your configuration. Click here for help making backups.

Firmware Testing

Before upgrading routers in a live deployment, it is a good idea to test the firmware before updating all your devices. Testing beforehand also helps to have a smoother time when upgrading all your devices.

The best way to test is to have a lab environment where you can create a situation similar to your live network and test how your configuration will work with different firmware.

The next step would be to test a small controlled group of devices in production on the prospective firmware to ensure a smooth transition for that firmware to your network.

Stair Stepping

When upgrading firmware between major and minor versions, it is highly recommended to perform a stair-step upgrade. A stair step upgrade entails making short jumps between firmware versions as shown below.

           Example: From 5.1.1 to 6.1.0
                   Start:___5.1.1
                Update 1:_________5.2.0
                Update 2:_______________5.2.4
                Update 3:_____________________5.3.4
                Update 4:__________________________ 5.4.1 
                Update 5:_________________________________6.0.1
                     End:_______________________________________6.1.0

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Products Affected: AER31x0, AER2100, AER16x0, IBR11x0, IBR9x0, IBR6x0, IBR6x0B, IBR6x0C, IBR350, CBA850, and MBR1200B. Click here to identify your router.

Summary

Cradlepoint was notified of critical security vulnerabilities discovered in the dnsmasq network service (CVE-2017-14491 and others); in response Cradlepoint has taken steps to incorporate the dnsmasq version 2.78 into its latest NetCloud OS.

If exploited, this vulnerability could allow attackers to remotely execute code, forward the contents of process memory, or disrupt service on an affected router. As described in various sources, this flaw is difficult to trigger, requiring an attacker who controls a specific domain to send DNS requests to dnsmasq requiring it to cache replies from that domain. Through carefully constructing DNS requests and responses, dnsmasq could cause an internal buffer overflow using content influenced by the attacker.

More details can be found here: https://security.googleblog.com/2017/10/behind-masq-yet-more-dns-and-dhcp.html.


Affected Products

Cradlepoint recommends customers immediately upgrade products to the upcoming NetCloud OS versions (available 10/30/17) to mitigate this vulnerability. All router products are affected, including:

• AER3100 / AER3150
• AER2100
• AER1600 / AER1650
• IBR1100 / IBR1150
• IBR900 / IBR950
• IBR600 / IBR650
• IBR600B / IBR650B
• IBR600C / IBR650C
• IBR350
• MBR1200B
• CBA850

NOTE: Routers used in default configuration were not exposed on their WAN interfaces. Routers were exposed to their Local Network, including the Guest LAN (if enabled).

NetCloud Manager has been patched for all its own affected services. Usernames and passwords are not at risk.


NetCloud OS Patch

6.4.2 (Available 10/30/17) – All products listed above

6.4.3 (Available 12/11/17) – IBR900/IBR950 – FIPS

Remote NetCloud OS Upgrades

For remote devices, Cradlepoint recommends using NetCloud Manager to upgrade NetCloud OS, manage networks intelligently, and avoid costly truck rolls. If you haven’t deployed NetCloud Manager, you can start a free 30-day trial of NetCloud Manager today.
Local NetCloud OS Upgrades

For information on updating NCOS locally on the Cradlepoint please consult the below articles.

NCOS: Automatic NetCloud OS Update

NCOS: How to update the NCOS of a Cradlepoint router.


Interim Mitigation Until NetCloud OS Release

Because malicious tools could be used to obtain passwords during this period, Cradlepoint recommends the following steps to protect your network during the interim:

  1. Disable Guest Access via the NETWORKING > Local Networks > Local IP Networks tab.

Once NetCloud OS 6.4.2 or 6.4.3 is Available
1. Upgrade to the latest NetCloud OS version
2. Re-enable Guest Access if it was disabled

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Summary

Two new vulnerabilities that affect many modern microprocessors were published on January 3rd, 2018. These vulnerabilities could allow attackers to read the contents of memory used by other applications on the same server or even processes running in other virtual machines (VMs).

The first vulnerability, called Meltdown, affects only Intel CPUs and can be fixed with an operating system patch.

The second, called Spectre, affects CPUs from AMD and ARM. It requires a CPU design change and cannot be fixed in software.

Cradlepoint routers are not affected by either vulnerability.  However, Cradlepoint services like NetCloud Manager (NCM) and NetCloud Perimeter (NCP) run on servers that may be vulnerable.

What is it?

Both vulnerabilities are based on a CPU optimization called “speculative execution”. Both also require an attacker to install malware on the target system.

With Meltdown, an attacker — who can install and run a program on the target machine — can access the memory of all other programs running on that machine.

With Spectre, an attacker can “read” memory of other programs through indirect means.

For more information, please see

  1. https://googleprojectzero.blogspot.ca/2018/01/reading-privileged-memory-with-side.html
  2. https://security.googleblog.com/2018/01/more-details-about-mitigations-for-cpu_4.html
  3. https://meltdownattack.com

 

 

The related CVEs are shown below:

CVE-2017-5715 (Spectre) “branch target injection” mitigated by CPU microcode update from CPU vendor
CVE-2017-5753 (Spectre) “bounds check bypass”
CVE-2017-5754 (Meltdown) “rogue data cache load” fixed with OS update

What Cradlepoint devices or services may be affected?

All NCM and NCP services run on cloud servers which may be affected. However, most NCM services run on multi-tenant servers and Cradlepoint’s primary cloud provider has patched their servers so that NCM is not vulnerable to Meltdown attacks running in other tenant spaces.

 

NCM could still be vulnerable to Meltdown exploits which manage to install malware on the NCM VMs. The operating system patch to fix Meltdown is expected to be released soon.  Cradlepoint will then begin immediate execution of its plans to apply the patch to all NCM systems.

 

No Cradlepoint routers use CPU’s vulnerable to Meltdown.

 

For Spectre, Cradlepoint does not support installing compiled applications on any routers with the Spectre vulnerability. An attacker would need to install malware that exploits certain CPU instruction patterns. Such patterns can only exist in compiled programs and Cradlepoint does not support compiling SDK apps.

Published Date: 01/08/2018

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Cradlepoint Series 3 (104)

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Series 3: How to configure MAC Address Filtering on a CradlePoint router

Note: On Series 3 routers, MAC Address Filtering only applies to devices connected via wireless (WiFi).

If you are unsure of CradlePoint Series or Model number, please click here.

This article was written based on firmware version 5.0.0.

Symptom:

  • Restrict wireless devices access (allow specific wireless devices to connect to the routers Wi-Fi network).

Cause:

Desire to enhance wireless (Wi-Fi) network security.

Resolution:

  1. Log into the routers administration page (login instructions).
  2. Click the Network Settings tab.                                                                                                         User-added image
  3. Select MAC Filter from the drop-down menu.                                                                                 User-added image
  4. In the Filter Configuration section place a check mark next to Enable.                                      User-added image
  5. Select Whitelist or Blacklist.
    • WHITELIST:  only allow those computers listed to connect to the network.
    • BLACKLIST:  Do not allow those devices listed to connect to the network.
  6. WHITELIST is demonstrated here.  Setting up the BLACKLIST option is the same steps.   User-added image
  7. Click the  Add button.                                                                                                                           User-added image
  8. In the pop-up window, enter the MAC Address of the device you would like to create a rule for in the MAC Address box. [Always begin with the device you are using to configure the CradlePoint router]                           User-added image
  9. Click the Submit button.                                                                                 User-added image
  10. The address will now be populated in to the MAC Filter List.                                                     User-added image
  11. Repeat these steps for all devices that you would like to either ALLOW access to your network or DENY access to your network corresponding to the rule selected in step 5.

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If you are unsure of CradlePoint Series or Model number, please click here

Symptom:

Inability to connect to the Internet with a supported modem through a Series 3 CradlePoint router.

Cause:

Outdated Firmware.

Conceptual Plan:  Since an Internet connection cannot be established through the router, the modem will need to be connected directly to the computer in order access www.cradlepoint.com and obtain the correct firmware files.  After saving the necessary firmware files on your computer the modem will need to be removed from the computer, and the CradlePoint router connected.  To connect a computer to the router and update firmware, no internet connection is required, only a connection between the computer and router. Once the router is connected to the computer, the files will be uploaded to the router and installed.

Resolution:

  1. Turn off your CradlePoint router.
  2. Connect your modem to your computer and establish an internet connection utilizing your carrier instructions.
  3. Open your web browser (Internet Explorer, Chrome, Firefox, Safari, etc.) and type http://cradlepoint.com/firmware into the main address bar.                                                               User-added image
  4. Choose your router model within the FIND AND DOWNLOAD FIRMWARE section by clicking the down arrow next to the – Select Product – field, and then click on the grey CHECK FOR LATEST FIRMWARE button.        User-added image
  5. Click on the Download vN.N.N link next to firmware version you would like to use. Please note that you may also see additional links for 4G or Wimax firmware files, which apply only to CradlePoint internal and integrated modems.            User-added image
  6. Within the file download box, choose the Save option. DO NOT select the option to Open or to Run the file. The dialog may appear differently, depending on your browser. Internet Explorer version 9 is used the example below.                         User-added image
  7. Click Save As from the selection menu. Please note that if you do not see this option, your browser might be automatically saving the file in your Downloads folder.                                                                                           User-added image
  8. Within the Save As window, select Desktop or another location on your computer where you’d prefer to save the file, and then click theSave button.                                                                                                                     User-added image
  9. Once the download has completed, disconnect the modem from your computer.
  10. Factory reset your CradlePoint router. Click here for instructions on performing a factory reset your Series 3 CradlePoint.
  11. Connect your computer to the CradlePoint router via Ethernet or Wi-Fi.
  12. Once connected to the router, log into the router’s administrative console.
  13. If you are using the CTR35 or MBR95 router models, enable the Advanced Configuration Mode.
  14. Click the System Settings tab, and choose System Software from the drop-down menu.                    User-added image
  15. Click on Manual Firmware Upload.                                                                                            User-added image
  16. Select Choose File.                                                                                                                         User-added image
  17. Select Desktop or the location where you had saved the file during Step 8. Note: if you never chose the location during the download process, the file most like saved in your Downloads folder by default.                                                                                                 User-added image
  18. Select the file name in the format u_router_model_date_of _firmware_release.bin and click OpenUser-added image
  19. Click Begin Firmware Upgrade.                                                                                                        User-added image
  20. The following screens will be displayed as the firmware is upgraded.                                    User-added imageUser-added image
  21. Once the firmware update is complete, if connected via Ethernet, you will automatically be returned to the Cradlepoint administrative login page. If connected via Wi-Fi, you may need to reconnect to the router’s wifi. Please note that if you computer has multiple wifi networks saved, it may have automatically reconnected to one of them while the CradlePoint router was rebooting.
  22. Log into the routers administration page (login instructions).                                                     User-added image
  23. Click the Status tab, and then select Dashboard from the drop-down menu to verify that the router firmware version has been updated. User-added image

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Summary:

This Document describes how to provision your supported CradlePoint routers with an Extended Enterprise License.
Beginning January 1, 2014, Enterprise Cloud Manager will automatically provision Extended Enterprise Licenses when the License is purchased, and the entitlement setup.  Until then, each router must be provisioned individually by using a License Key. The License Key is only valid for the device(s) that were specified when the license was purchased (or Trial requested).

Supported Routers:

  • AER2100
  • MBR1400, ARC MBR1400 (HW ver 2.0 is required)
  • COR IBR600, COR IBR650

Terms of Service:

  • Please review the CradlePoint Services Agreement, as these terms and conditions govern your use of the Feature License.
  • If you do not accept the terms and conditions in the CradlePoint Service Agreement, DO NOT upload the License File to your routers.
  • By uploading the License File and enabling your routers with the Feature License, you acknowledge you have read, understand and agree to be bound by the CradlePoint Service Agreement.

Apply license to your CradlePoint routers:

  1. Begin by saving the License Key to the desktop of your computer.
  2. Log into the CradlePoint admin pages (Series 3: Accessing the Setup Pages of a CradlePoint router)
  3. Check that your Firmware version is 5.0.0 or later by navigating to System Settings -> System Software and check that Current Firmware Version is v5.0.0 or later. If not, select Check Again, then Automatic (Internet).
  4. From the administration pages of the router navigate to System Settings – > Feature Licenses
  5. Select Choose File and browse to the license file saved to your desktop. Select it and then select Upload to apply your license.
  6. Upon successful upload, the router must be rebooted to finish installation
  7. After reboot the feature, (s) is(are) now available in your router and ready to be configured.
Note: Feature Licenses survive factory resets and can only be removed by CradlePoint.

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This article was written for CradlePoint models MBR95 and CTR35, based on firmware versions 5.0.0 and 3.6.3 respectively.Click here if you are not sure which Series or Model CradlePoint router you have.

Symptom:

I cannot find the settings I want to change. Certain options I need to choose are not available.

Description:

Router models CTR35 and MBR95 have two configuration modes: Basic and Advanced. In Basic mode many settings are hidden to make the router’s interface easier to navigate, but sometimes it may be necessary to make configuration changes which would require the Advanced mode to be turned on. This article describes how to toggle between Basic and Advanced configuration modes.

Directions:

  1. Log into your router’s administrative console. If you are not sure how to access your router’s administrative console, click here.User-added image
  2. Click on the Basic Mode button in the top left corner of the CradlePoint router’s administrative console.User-added image
  3. The button will turn dark grey, and will now be called Advanced Mode. Note that a lot of additional options are now available from the drop-down menus.User-added image

Note: To switch back to Basic Mode, just click on the dark grey Advanced Mode button.

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Configuration Difficulty: Expert



Summary

Firmware Version

Network Topology

Configuration

– Certificate Creation and Exporting

– OpenVPN Server Configuration

– Configuring the Client

Technical

Troubleshooting


Summary


This article is intended to assist the CradlePoint Administrator in configuring the CradlePoint to act as an OpenVPN Server and configuring a Windows 7 client to connect.


Firmware Version


This Article was written utilizing firmware version 5.2.0.


Network Topology

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Configuration


Certificate Creation and Exporting

  1. You will need to generate the following certificates for use by the OpenVPN architecture; A CA, a Server Certificate, and a Client Certificate (you will need a Client Certificate for each client you wish to connect to the CradlePoint). This can be done in the Certificate Manager in the CradlePoint. The Certificate Manager is accessed by clicking SYSTEM SETTINGS > CERTIFICATE MANAGEMENT. User-added image
  2. To Create a CA Certificate; Click on CREATE CERTIFICATE on the left-hand tabs. Fill out the information in the text boxes, it is recommended not to use spaces or special characters in any of the text fields for certificates. In the ISSUER section be sure to check the box for “Set as CA certificate.” Click APPLY. NOTE: The Common Name field for each certificate needs to be unique among all the certificates used for OpenVPN.User-added image
  3. To Create a Server Certificate; Click on CREATE CERTIFICATE on the left-hand tabs. Fill out the information in the text boxes, it is recommended not to use spaces or special characters in any of the text fields for certificates. In the ISSUER, section is sure to check the box for “Sign with a CA certificate” and select your CA from the drop down. NOTE: The Common Name field for each certificate needs to be unique among all the certificates used for OpenVPN. User-added image
  4. To Create a Client Certificate; Click on CREATE CERTIFICATE on the left-hand tabs. Fill out the information in the Text boxes, it is recommended not to use spaces or special characters in any of the text fields for certificates. In the ISSUER section be sure to check the box for “Sign with a CA certificate” and select your CA from the drop down. NOTE: The Common Name field for each certificate needs to be unique among all the certificates used for Open User-added image
  5. You will need to export the CA and Client certificates in order to use them in the configuration for the client. Select EXPORT PEM from the tabs on the left hand screen.                                                                                                                                                               User-added image
  6. Export the CA and Client certificates by selecting each certificate in turn from the drop-down and clicking the EXPORT button. User-added image
  7. You will also need to retrieve the Private Key for the Client certificate. As of firmware version 5.2, this is only possible via the CLI. For instructions on how to access the CLI, please refer to the article; Series 3: Command Line Interface (CLI) Overview.
  8. Once you are logged in to the CLI you will need to navigate to the Certificate Manager directory by issuing the following command cd config/certmgmt/certsUser-added image
  9. To view the certificates, issue the get command from the current directory.
  10. Locate the Private Key for your Client certificate and copy the text and paste it to a text document. The private key will be above the name of the certificate in the output of the get command as indicated in the screen shot. User-added image
  11. You will need to reformat the key document. In the key text document, you will need to locate all the carriage returns (the character combination in.). Just before each carriage return you will need to press the Enter key and the delete the carriage return. You will also need to remove all unnecessary spaces. Take great care to not delete any other characters, this will invalidate the key. Save the document with a .key extension.                                      User-added image    User-added image


OpenVPN Server Configuration

  1. To configure OpenVPN on the CradlePoint, go to INTERNET > OPENVPN TUNNELS.                                                             User-added image
  2. Click ADD.                                                                                                      User-added image
  3. Give the Tunnel a familiar name.
  4. Select SERVER from the Tunnel Mode drop down.
  5. Select you server certificate from the Certificate Name drop down.
  6. Check the TLS-Authentication if you would like the tunnel to use TLS. In this example, you will leave it unchecked.
  7. Assign an IP address and subnet mask to you tunnel network.
  8. Check the Support IPv6 Tunnels if you will be using IPv6 addresses. In this example, we will leave it unchecked.
  9. Choose the protocol you wish your tunnel to use from the Tunnel Protocol drop down. In this example, we will use UDP.
  10. Enter the port number you wish your tunnel to connect on. The default is 1194.
  11. Enter the amount of time you wish to wait to send a ping if no traffic has been sent through the tunnel in the Ping field. The value is in seconds, and 10 is the default.
  12. Enter the amount of time to wait if no pings have been received before the tunnel restarts into the Ping Restart field. This value is in seconds, and the default is 60.
  13. Ensure the Tunnel Enabled box is checked.
  14. Click NEXT.                                                                                                    User-added image
  15. The Remote Server field is unavailable in this configuration because you are the server.
  16. Click NEXT.                                                                                                    User-added image
  17. Enter any networks you would like to advertise via the tunnel by clicking ADD ROUTE, entering the Network IP Address and subnet mask and click Save.
  18. Click NEXT.                                                                                                    User-added image
  19. If in Step 6 you choose to use TLS, you will need to generate a TLS-Authentication Key, by clicking the GENERATE button. In this example, we are not using TLS so we will skip this step.
  20. Click FINISH.                                                                                                     User-added image


Configuring the Client

  1. On you Windows 7 client, you will need to download the OpenVPN GUI.
  2. You will need to create a configuration file for your client in a text editor. Below is an example configuration file that corresponds to the settings we have set in our server. In the areas for the CA and Client certificate and the Client key, you will need to open each one of those files in a text editor, and copy and paste the text direct into the configuration file in the appropriate area.
    • client
    • dev tun
    • proto udp
    • port 1194
    • persist-tun
    • persist-key
    • keepalive 10 60
    • verb 3
    • <connection>
    • remote x.x.x.x(IP address of server) 1194 udp
    • </connection>
    • <ca>
    • (Insert CA cert here)
    • </ca>
    • <cert>
    • (Insert Client cert here)
    • </cert>
    • <key>
    • (Insert Client key here)
    • </key>
  3. Save the configuration file with a .ovpn extension in to the config directory of OpenVPN.    User-added image
  4. You will need to set OpenVPN GUI to “Run as Administrator”. This can be don by right clicking on OpenVPN GUI and selecting Properties. Under the Compatibility tab, check the box next to “Run this program as an administrator”. Then click OK.                                 User-added image
  5. Launch OpenVPN GUI.                                                                                User-added image
  6. Right click the OpenVPN GUI icon in the System tray.                                                                                                                    User-added image
  7. Click Connect.

You will get a message stating you are connected to the OpenVPN server in the CradlePoint. This can be verified by opening a Command Prompt and pinging the OpenVPN IP address of the CradlePoint as well as viewing the routing table on your computer. User-added imageUser-added image


Technical

Terms

  • Carriage Return: a control character or mechanism used to reset a device’s position to the beginning of a line of text, for the purpose of this document the control character is \n.
  • Certificate Authority (CA): an entity that issues digital certificates. The digital certificate certifies the ownership of a public key by the named subject of the certificate.
  • Command Line Interface (CLI): is a type of human-computer interface (i.e., a way for humans to interact with computers) that relies solely on textual input and output. This is accessed via SSH in the CradlePoint.
  • OpenVPN: an open source software application that implements virtual private network (VPN) techniques for creating secure point-to-point or site-to-site connections in routed or bridged configurations and remote access facilities. It uses a custom security protocol[2] that utilizes SSL/TLS for key exchange. It is capable of traversing network address translators (NATs) and firewalls. It was written by James Yonan and is published under the GNU General Public License (GPL)
  • Secure Sockets Layer/Transport Layer Security (TLS): are cryptographic protocols designed to provide communication security over the Internet.[1] They use X.509 certificates and hence asymmetric cryptography to authenticate the counterparty with whom they are communicating, and to exchange a symmetric key. This session key is then used to encrypt data flowing between the parties. This allows for data/message confidentiality, and message authentication codes for message integrity and as a by-product, message authentication.

System Requirements

  • This feature is found only on the following CradlePoint Products: AER 2100 and MBR1400v2
  • OpenVPN requires an Extended Enterprise License (EEL) and Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) to use this feature.

Troubleshooting

To view the status of the OpenVPN tunnels, you will need to access the CLI of the CradlePoint and issue the following command; get status/openvpn.

To view log messages, you will need to enable Debug level logging. Enabling this level of logging will impact router performance and over time can cause unexpected reboots or loss of functionality and should only be enabled at the request of an authorized CradlePoint representative. This enables debug level logging for most of the Router Services. This is enabled by navigating to SYSTEM SETTINGS > ADMINISTRATION > SYSTEM LOGGING and next to the LOGGING LEVEL select DEBUG from the drop down.


CradlePoint Knowledgebase

OpenVPN

OpenVPN How To


Published Date:
7/1/2014

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Cradlepoint Series 2 (49)

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If you are unsure of CradlePoint Series or Model number, please click here.

This article was written on firmware version 2.0.0

What is PPPoE? Click here to find out.

Symptom:

A DSL/cable/satellite modem with PPPoE authentication required by the ISP will not connect to a CradlePoint router.

Cause:

If DSL/cable/satellite modem uses PPPoE authentication is required by an ISP the PPPoE information needs to be configured in the CradlePoint before a successful connection can be established.  The correct username and password must be obtained from the ISP.

Resolution:

  1. Obtain PPPoE authentication information from the DSL/cable/satellite provider.  Click here for a list of common DSL providers that require PPPoE.
  2. Log into the routers setup page (login instructions).
  3. Click the Basic tab.
  4. Click WAN in gray sub-menu on the left.                                                                                             User-added image
  5. Locate the Connection Type section then change the Internet Connection from Dynamic IP (DHCP) to PPPoE (Username/Password).
  6. Fill in the Username and Password fields with the PPPoE credentials.
  7. Set the Reconnect Mode to Always On.                                                                                             User-added image
  8. Click Save Settings, at the top of the page, then Reboot Now when prompted.
  9. Allow the router to reboot, then connect your PPPoE modem to the Blue WAN port on the CradlePoint.

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If you are unsure of the Series and model of the CradlePoint router, click here.

Symptom:

When using the Internet Access User Login feature, some computers will have trouble and keep reporting “Session Timeout.” This can occur on the Administration Login page but occurs less frequently.


Resolution:

Check and make sure your firmware is up to date! Use the following article if you need help doing this.

Updating the Firmware on Your Series 1 or 2 CradlePoint Router

If your firmware is up to date and you are still having this timeout error issue, then follow the options below.

Option 1:

Use another web browser, i.e. Mozilla FireFox, Google Chrome, Safari, Opera, etc.

Option 2:

When presented with the option to view the error by pressing cancel, press cancel. When you see the error pop up, press the “X” button to close the window and you can then successfully navigate the admin pages.

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If you are unsure of CradlePoint Series or Model number, please click here.

Description:

It can often be useful or necessary to manually enter AT dial commands into the router, for example to assign a specific “Access Point Name” (APN) when connecting to a GSM provider (such as AT&T or T-Mobile, as well as many international mobile carriers).  When used with supported modems, Series 1 or 2 CradlePoint routers may be configured to connect using AT dial commands.  Some AT dial string commands are generic and other AT dial string commands may only work with a specific modem or brand of modem.  Your modem manufacturer may be able to provide a list of commands that your modem will support.

A list of commonly used APNs for many mobile providers can be found here

Here is a common AT dial script used to manually assign an APN to a specific SIM profile slot:

AT+CGDCONT=[PROFILE SLOT],”IP”,”[APN NAME]”
ATDT*99***[PROFILE SLOT]#

(Replace [PROFILE SLOT] with the slot number (1-15) and [APN NAME] with your mobile carrier’s APN)

For example, to manually assign the AT&T APN “broadband” to SIM profile slot 1, you would enter:

AT+CGDCONT=1,”IP”,”broadband”
ATDT*99***1#

To instead assign the AT&T APN “i2gold” to SIM profile slot 3, you would enter:

AT+CGDCONT=3,”IP”,”i2gold”
ATDT*99***3#

Here is another useful AT dial string (supported with many modems) that will “wake” the modem from airplane mode:

AT+CFUN=1

These commands can also be combined.  For example:

AT+CFUN=1
AT+CGDCONT=1,”IP”,”broadband”
ATDT*99***1#

Directions:

These directions will walk you through entering a modem’s AT Dial Script command to be dialed when the CradlePoint connects using the modem to connect.

  1. Log into the CradlePoint’s administrative console, the default location is http://192.168.0.1.  Click here if you are unsure of how to access the administration pages.
  2. Plug your modem into the router.
  3. Click on the “Modem” tab at the top of the screen, then select “Settings” on the left.Getting to "Modem Settings"
  1. Scroll down to the “Modem Specific Settings” field, then in the “modem interface” drop-down menu, select your modem.
    User-added image
  2. Scroll down to the “AT Dial Script” field, and enter your dial script.User-added image
  1. Scroll to the top of the page and click “Save Settings”. When asked to reboot, choose to “Reboot Now”.

The router will completely reboot. Once the reboot is complete, it will try to connect to the modem with the specified AT dial command.

Notes:

Some modems (particularly 4G LTE modems) use QMI instead of AT dial scripting.  These modems will ignore any AT dial commands entered into the router.

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If you are not sure what Series CradlePoint router you have, please click here.

This article was written for firmware version 2.0.0.

Symptom:

This article is relevant if you are experiencing one of the two symptoms below:

  1. The content filtering options in a series 2 CradlePoint router has stopped working.
  2. You have an OpenDNS account and would like to configure the router to use it.

Supported CradlePoint routers can be configured to use OpenDNS to filter Web content.  OpenDNS is a third party web filtering service that CradlePoint works closely with to provide this functionality in our routers. A customer can create an account to take advantage of these features such as Shortcuts.

To use this setting, you need to first create an OpenDNS account.  You can create an account at http://www.opendns.com and click on the Create Account link. Follow the onscreen instructions to create an account.


Cause:

OpenDNS has discontinued their free content filtering service as of August 2012. This shouldn’t affect internet access of customers who currently are using OpenDNS, but content filtering will no longer work. If you would still like to utilize the content filtering service provided by OpenDNS, you will need to create an account and add the account credentials into your CradlePoint.

Resolution:

The supported Cradlepoint routers can be configured to use this feature to filter Web content.  OpenDNS is a third party web filtering service that CradlePoint works closely with to provide this functionality in our routers. A customer can create an OpenDNS account to take advantage of OpenDNS features such as Shortcuts.

To use the Custom OpenDNS setting you need to first create an OpenDNS account.  You can create an account at http://www.opendns.com and click on the Create Account link. Follow the onscreen instructions to create an account.

With OpenDNS setup, you are now ready to enter this information into the CradlePoint Router.

  1. Open the Administration pages,
  2. Select ADVANCED and on the left side of the page click on WEB FILTER.
  3. Select the Custom radio button.
  4. In the OpenDNS Network Name: field enter the Network name you created when creating your OpenDNS account.
  5. In the OpenDNS Username: field enter the username you used to login to OpenDNS.
  6. In the OpenDNS Password: field enter the password you use to login to OpenDNS.
  7. In the Verify OpenDNS Password: field re-enter the password you use to login to OpenDNS.
  8. Click the Save button
  9. Click the Reboot button

After reboot, you can take advantage of the additional features that this service provides.

NOTE: It can sometimes take up to 15 minutes for it to take effect.

NOTE: Some Cell carriers and/or ISP’s block these requests to other providers.  If you have waited for 15 minutes and you are still able to access a web page, Cradlepoint and OpenDNS have provided the Enable OpenDNS ISP Filter Bypass Algorithm check Box.  Place a check in the box, Click Save Setting and reboot the router.

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If you are not sure what Series CradlePoint router you have, please click here.

This article was written based upon firmware version 2.0.0.

Symptom:

Wireless (WiFi) network is unsecure; I am  worried someone may be able to access my internet and/or devices.

Cause:

Series 1 & 2 CradlePoint routers do not ship with Wireless (WiFi) security enabled by default.

Resolution:

Wi-Fi security is suggested by CradlePoint. Wireless security helps prevent users from connecting devices to your router unless they have your wireless security password.

Wireless Security – Wizard

  1. Log into the administrative console. The default location is http://192.168.0.1  Click here if you are not sure how to access the administration pages.                                                                                                        User-added image
  2. Go to the BASIC tab, click WIZARD in the left-hand columnUser-added image
  3. Select the Launch Setup Wizard, click Next on the following screen.
  4. Set your Time Zone from the drop down menu and select Next                                                                 User-added image
  5. Uncheck the Require User Login box
  6. Select the Security Mode you would like to use. (CradlePoint recommend Better), then click Next               User-added image
  7. Set the Wireless Security Password you would like to use, click Next                                                       User-added image
  8. Click Save on the Setup Complete page. Click Ok on the box that appears.                                                User-added image
  9. Finally click Reboot Now.  Once the router has rebooted, the Wireless (WiFi) will be secure.                        User-added image



Wireless Security – Manual

  1. Log into the administrative console. The default location is http://192.168.0.1  Click here if you are not sure how to access the administration pages.                                                                                                         User-added image
  2. Go to the BASIC tab, click on WIRELESS (WiFi) in the left-hand column User-added image
  3. Scroll down to WIRELESS SECURITY MODE, select WPA-PersonalUser-added image
  4. In the WPA Mode drop-down, make sure Auto (WPA or WPA2) is selected.  Set the Cipher Type to TKIP and AESUser-added image
  5. Enter a Pre-Shared Key (This needs to be 8-63 characters in length and will be your Wireless (WiFi) Password)User-added image
  6. Scroll up the page and click Save Settings                                                                                                User-added image
  7. Click Ok on the box that appears
  8. Click Reboot Now                                                                                                                                    User-added image
  9. After your router is completely rebooted connect your PC to the router.

For basic instructions on how to connect a computer to a CradlePoint router refer to this article

How to Connect a Computer to a CradlePoint Router

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Sierra Wireless Products (45)

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ALEOS Application Framework (ALEOS AF) provides developers a complete set of building blocks and tools for creating applications that run inside Sierra Wireless AirLink GX gateways. ALEOS AF builds on the proven ALEOS built-in embedded intelligence and integrates with the AirVantage M2M Cloud Platform in order to offer developers and customers a platform for creating tailored end-to-end M2M solution.

ALEOS AF provides M2M and network protocol stacks, remote application and data management, access to existing ALEOS services, and direct access to hardware interfaces for building custom M2M applications.

ALEOS AF gets solutions to market faster, simplifies deployment, and allows for specialized features that yield cheaper and more focused solutions. Intelligence at the edge reduces hardware and communication costs by preprocessing and transmitting only necessary data.

For a visual introduction to what is ALEOS AF and what it enables please see the ALEOS AF video below.

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Yes, both the Sierra Wireless GX400 and 440 support the use of X-Cards. The expansion card slot is designed to greatly increase the versatility of the platform.

  • WiFi XCard that will enable a WiFi (802.11 b/g/n) hotspot (access point) and support WiFi client mode

Two additional X-Cards are slated to be released in 2012. These cards will

  • Support additional Ethernet Ports
  • Expand I/O (inputs and outputs)

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

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There are multiple sizes of SIM cards in the marketplace; however it is important to note that the Sierra Wireless GX400 and GX440 both use a standard size SIM.

Please contact your USAT Sales Manager to identify the SIM that will work best for you. Note all devices provisioned by USAT will be network authenticated prior to shipment thereby removing any chance that you order the incorrect SIM.

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Sierra Wireless AirLink® has a platform called AirVantage. AirVantage has a powerful set of M2M application development tools and an open web services application programming interface (API) which can be leveraged in conjunction with ALEOS Application Framework (AAF) running inside of Sierra Wireless AirLink® GX-400 and GX-440 intelligent wireless gateways. USAT Corp is a premier partner of Sierra Wireless authorized to to optimize AAF coding in Lua, so that the devices are shipped live to the field during with device deployment. USAT’s DevProv+ suite of services ensures maximum success with a deployment of equipment utilizing the AirVantage platform.

AirVantage can also function as a device management backbone, communicating directly with devices in the field through the AirVantage Ready Agent. This also provides advanced asset management features to issue commands to assets or collect asset data and events. AirVantage Platform also includes embedded and application development tools to expedite time to market. The eclipse based programming tools are tied to the AirVantage Ready Agent as well as the services platform in order to create a comprehensive M2M development environment. This environment includes embedded M2M modeling tools and application simulation tools.

Another facet of AirVantage is AirVantage Smart Automation. This platform simplifies the connection to industrial equipment and the creation of embedded business logic without programming. This enables new services such as tiered monitoring and maintenance, demand response applications, and time- or location-based equipment usage models.

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The Sierra Wireless GX440 is a 4G WWAN LTE router. AT&T and Verizon’s 4G LTE service requires the use of a SIM card. USAT stocks AT&T SIM cards. The AT&T SIM card can be procured & activated by USAT the time of purchase.

Through the procurement of USAT’s DevProv+ suite the device and SIM can be activated on the AT&T network. Additionally, USAT’s DevProv+ suite allows for network authentication, special template loads and device management prior to shipment.

 

Learn More about the Sierra Wireless Gx440

 

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Digi Products (3)

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Firewall concerns:
Firewalls (and the IT security people that maintain them) are generally concerned with protecting a location’s Local Area Network from unauthorized use – both from traffic coming at the network from the outside world, and traffic from within the local area network going outward.  A Remote Management-capable Digi product falls into the latter category, because the Digi device creates an outbound TCP socket connection to the Device Cloud or Remote Manager server.  This  EDP (easy device protocol) socket connection is tunnel through which data gets pushed from your Gateway to to the Device Cloud, so that data can be accessed from anywhere in the world.

The following article describes:

  • The IP socket connections used when a Digi RF Gateway,TransPort Router, or edp-capable device (using Digi Cloud Connector) makes a Remote Management connection to Device Cloud or Remote Manager
  • How to determine the IP address in use for a given Device Cloud or Remote Manager DNS name

Locations where it is likely that Firewall Rules will be needed:

Those who are trying to connect to Device Cloud or Remote Manager from a location which has strict outbound firewall rules will especially need the guidance found within this article.  Some likely examples for this type of network security environment include:  Government offices/buildings and institutions, Schools, Universities, and some Businesses (especially ones that do government contract work).

 

What network port(s) does a Gateway or Connect-capable device use to connect to Device Cloud?

By default, the TCP and/or UDP port(s) your Device Cloud-capable Gateway or device uses to connect with Device Cloud will depend in part on the age/default configuration of your Gateway, the device’s configuration, as well as the particular model.

TCP Port 3197:  The outbound EDP/non-SSL (non-secure) socket connection from NDS-based products like the ConnectPort X2 / X4 / X5 / X8 Gateways, and ERT/Ethernet Gateway (especially if the product hasolder firmware), which may still be configured to create an un-encrypted Device Cloud socket connection.

Note:  If possible, the firmware of older products should be updated so that the Device Cloud configuration settings can changed to use of SSL socket connections into the Device Cloud instead (see next entry below).

TCP Port 3199:   The outbound EDP/SSL (secure) socket connection from NDS-based products like the ConnectPort X2 / X4 / X5 / X8 Gateways, and ERT/Ethernet Gateway with newer firmware which are configured to create a secure SSL socket connection into Device Cloud.  Required on ALL Linux-based Gateways, examples:  XBee Gateway ZB andConnectPort X2e for Smart Energy.  Can also be required if the Device Cloud account is configured to accept SSL connections only (new Device Cloud option as of version 2.16)

UDP Port 53:  Outbound DNS (Domain Name Service) name recognition service, i.e. translates the my.devicecloud.com name for Device Cloud connectivity.

Note:  DNS service is not a requirement.  If access to DNS service is not allowed or possible from your network, the device’s remote connectivity address would need to use the IP address of my.devicecloud.com (52.73.23.137), rather than the DNS name itself (see below under What IP address is needed for outbound Firewall rule(s)? for more details).

UDP Port 123:  The outbound socket connection to an NTP (time) server is required for ALL Linux-based Gateways such as the XBee Gateway and ConnectPort X2e, as well as  gateways and devices configured for NTP time management.

Important Note for all XBee and ConnectPort X2e Gateways (and Gateways configured for NTP Time Management)

The XBee Gateway and ConnectPort X2e are Linux-based gateways which require outbound access to UDP port 123 (NTP), in order to generate the secure (SSL) TCP socket connection into Device Cloud.  Any Gateways which are configured for NTP time management will have this requirement as well, since the Gateway connects to an NTP server in order to to keep an accurate date/time.

If your XBee (or CP-X2e) Gateway is added to your Device Cloud account but never shows up in a Connected state, check to ensure that outbound NTP access is available for the Gateway through your local network Firewall.  ConnectPort X2 and X4 gateways would still connect to Device Cloud (assuming TCP port 3199 isn’t blocked), but the Gateway might show an epoch 1970-based date/time if no other Time Sources are configured.
What IP address is needed for outbound Firewall rule(s)?

The best way to determine that is to do an nslookup of the DNS name for the Remote Management server you want your device(s) to connect to.  As of the date of this article (6/16/2015), here is how this looked from my Windows 7 commandline (Start – Run – CMD) prompt when doing nslookup of our various Remote Management and NTP ring servers:

Digi Device Cloud and Remote Manager device connectivity address:

C:\>nslookup my.devicecloud.com

Name:    my.devicecloud.com
Address:  52.73.23.137

Past Device Cloud connectivity addresses which may still be in use on devices (all device configurations should be updated to use of the my.devicecloud.com address, then re-connected to the server at the new address):

devicecloud.digi.com
login.etherios.com
my.idigi.com
app.idigi.com

devicecloud-uk.digi.com
login.etherios.co.uk
my.idigi.co.uk

Digi Primary NTP Time Server Ring addresses:

C:\>nslookup time.devicecloud.com

Name:     time.devicecloud.com
Addresses:  52.25.29.129, 52.2.40.158

Secondary/Tertiary NTP Time Server addresses for pool usage:

C:\>nslookup 0.time.devicecloud.com

Name:     0.time.devicecloud.com
Addresses:  52.2.40.158

C:\>nslookup 1.time.devicecloud.com

Name:     1.time.devicecloud.com
Addresses:  52.25.29.129

Deprecated NTP/Time server addresses which may still be in use on devices (all devices should be updated to use time.devicecloud.com within their configuration):

time.digi.com
time.etherios.com

time.etherios.co.uk
0.idigi.pool.ntp.org
1.idigi.pool.ntp.org
2.idigi.pool.ntp.org

Making the Firewall Rules:

If the IP address of the DNS name ever changes (before this article is updated to reflect it), a Windows CLI command can be used to determine the IP address of our server:

nslookup <DNS name of server>

The Name and Address fields will be the DNS name and IP address for the Remote Management or Time server listed.  Your firewall rule will need to allow access for the appropriate network port used based on your Gateway’s Device Management configuration, as well as UDP port 123 if NTP Time Management is in use.

Important Note regarding deprecated DNS names:

If your Gateway is configured to use an idigi.* or etherios.* DNS name, it should be re-configured to use the my.devicecloud.com url at your earliest convenience. You will need to create firewall rules for all IP addresses/ports used, for all Remote Management and Time (NTP) DNS server names used within your device.

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Cloud services can be used for applications built around Software as a Service (SaaS), Platform as a Service (PaaS), or Infrastructure as a Service (IaaS).

Digi International has a platform called iDigi. iDigi is a cloud platform for both device network management and for data management. The iDigi Device Cloud is designed using a high-availability architecture, with redundancy and failover characteristics. It is a highly scalable system that can host single units to tens of thousands of Digi devices. It also has web services APIs for secure application integration and data messaging. iDigi device clouds are located in Chicago and in London and you can select to which cloud your data is subscribed.

Device management also include the ability to send commands to remote devices. Standard web service calls are available to manage traditional device settings. An optional Server Command Interface / Remote Command Interface (SCI/RCI) mechanism is available for any custom device or application commands that may be required.

iDigi Manager Pro is a pay-as-you-go model, starting at $1.59 per registered device, per month. Sending data to and from the iDigi Device Cloud is billed on a transactional basis and are available at different usage levels. Data is managed through iDigi, which means that iDigi provides a collection point of data. iDigi is not a (long-term) data storage solution–Digi Dia data is stored for 1 day, and iDigi files are stored for 7 days.

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Unlike the ConnectPort WAN, the serial ports on the standard builds of the Digi Transport line are DTE not DCE serial, this means that a null modem cable should be used instead of a cross-over cable.

Null modem is a communication method to connect two DTEs (computer, terminal, printer etc.) directly using an RS-232 serial cable. The name stems from the historical use of the RS-232 cable to connect two teleprinter devices to modems in order to communicate with one another; null modem communication was possible by instead using RS-232 to connect the teleprinters directly to one another.

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Digi Transport (18)

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This article explains how to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort or Sarian router using Flashwriter via your Ethernet port.

If you need to upgrade your firmware using Flashwriter via the serial port, please see this article: How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using Flashwriter – Serial Procedure

Please note that upgrading the firmware using Flashwriter will erase any existing configuration files on the router.

1) Download and install Flashwriter.

2) Obtain the latest Flashwriter firmware zip file, which can be found at one of the following links depending on your model:

Digi TransPort Flashwriter files

Sarian Flashwriter files

It is very important that the correct firmware file is used for the model number being upgraded. If you attempt to load firmware designed for one model onto a different model the router may cease to function and will be difficult to recover.

Note that there is at least one variation of firmware dependent on the module.  To determine which module module you have, please see the following article: How to Determine which module to select in the Flashwriter Procedure.   This article will also come into play on step 14 of this procedure.

To locate the correct firmware for your model, after clicking on a link above, select the subdirectory containing the version you wish to download (the newest version is recommended) then the subdirectory relating to your model. Select the zip file to download it. The format of the file name is as follows:

<model name>-<firmware version>.zip

As an example, the file called WR44-5162.zip is firmware for the WR44 model and is firmware version 5.162.

3) Extract all of the files, from the downloaded zip archive, to a directory on your PC.

4) Close any other programs that are running on your PC.

5) Connect the LAN 0 port of the router to the local Ethernet network, unless the model appears in the list below, in which case please use the specified LAN port. If you are connecting the router to your PC ‘directly’ via Ethernet (i.e. not via a local network) please ensure that a (non-managed) switch is connected between the router and PC.

Model Port Number
VC7400 LAN 4
VC5100 LAN 1
MW3520 LAN 1

6) Run the Flashwriter program that was installed in step 1).

7) Select ‘Eth’ as the ‘Communications port number/Interface’ in Flashwriter, which is the last entry in the drop down list.

8) On the main Flashwriter screen, ensure that:
– The ‘Configure only’ check box is NOT ticked
– The ‘Use event driven mode’ check box IS ticked
– The ‘Use Xmodem 1K’ check box is NOT ticked
– The ‘Use TFTP’ check box IS ticked
User-added image

9) Click the ‘Load’ button.

10) Click ‘Yes’ when prompted with the warning message.

11) Enter the serial number of the router.  This is located on the label on the underside of your TransPort.  On the label, you will note a line that shows SN / HW Rev / Batch.  These correspond with the values to the right of those.  The SN stands for serial number.  This is the six digit number which is the value Flashwriter is looking for.
User-added image

Once you enter the serial number of the TransPort, click OK.
User-added image

12) A message will pop up, “Next enter the location of the .all file.  Click OK.

13) Enter the location of the ‘.all file’ that you extracted from the zip file earlier (step 3) and then click Open.

14) Select the W-WAN module that is in your TransPort.
Please see the following article on determining which module you have:How to Determine which module to select in the Flashwriter Procedure.
Click OK after selecting the module.
At this point the Flashwriter program will update your firmware.

If you have any issues, please note what, if any, error messages pop up.
If it does error out, please try to run the procedure once again.

Please note: The TFTP firmware load takes place via Ethernet. However, Flashwriter can establish initial contact with the router either via the serial port or via Ethernet. The Ethernet option is provided because it is more convenient, but please note that the Ethernet option does not work in all circumstances:

  • Some older products do not support Ethernet
  • Some older bootloaders do not support Ethernet
  • If the firmware on the unit is badly corrupted, Ethernet may not work

Some common issues:

  • Selecting a serial port when actually using an Ethernet cable
  • If there is a firewall in place, make sure it is not blocking port 69.
  • Bad or no Ethernet connection
  • Sometimes we see an error message and it’s something in the laptop or computer itself.  Maybe trying another PC or laptop will resolve the issue.
  • Ensure you are loading the correct firmware.
  • If you are connecting the router to your PC ‘directly’ via Ethernet (i.e. not via a local network) please ensure that a (non-managed) switch is connected between the router and PC.

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This article explains how to upgrade to firmware version 5.2.9.13 or later on a Digi TransPort or Sarian router using a USB flash drive.

There are two different methods available:

Method A is simpler, but will erase any existing configuration files on the router.

Method B is more complicated, but will allow any existing configuration files on the router to be retained.

Method A: Loading a complete flash memory image onto the router, in the form of a ‘.all file’

Please note: upgrading the firmware using a ‘.all file’ will erase any existing configuration files on the router.

1) Obtain the latest ‘.all file’, which can be found at one of the following links depending on your model:

Digi TransPort .all files

Sarian .all files

It is very important that the correct firmware file is used for the model number being upgraded. If you attempt to load firmware designed for one model onto a different model the router may cease to function and will be difficult to recover.

To locate the correct firmware for your model, after clicking on a link above, select the subdirectory containing the version you wish to download (the newest version is recommended) then the subdirectory relating to your model. Select the .all file to download it. The format of the file name is as follows:

<model name>-<firmware version>.all

As an example, the file called WR44-5162.all is firmware for the WR44 model and is firmware version 5.162.

2) Rename the .all file to adhere to the ‘8.3’ filename format that the router expects – i.e. a maximum of 8 characters before the ‘.’ plus a maximum of 3 characters for the extension. You can see that WR44-5162.all has 9 characters before the ‘.’ and so will not be recognised by the router’s file system. In this example WR44-5162.all is renamed to WR44.all – this step is important as most downloaded .all files will not by default adhere to the 8.3 filename convention.

3) Create a file named autoexec.bat and edit it in a text editor (for example Notepad in Windows) to contain the following lines. Lines in bold will always need to be present; the ‘copy’ line should be amended as appropriate to reflect the name of the renamed .all file being copied (although the destination filename should be always be ‘all.all’ so that the existing .all file on the router is replaced. It is important to include a blank line at the end of the file after ‘flashleds’. For the example file ‘WR44.all’:

ERROR_EXIT
copy u:WR44.all all.all
scanr
flashleds

< BLANK LINE>

4) Using your PC, format a USB flash drive. Note that this will erase all data on the USB drive. Not all USB drives work with Digi TransPort or Sarian routers. Older firmware supports only FAT16 formatted drives but newer firmware supports FAT32. NTFS is not supported.

5) Once formatting is complete, perform a ‘safe hardware removal’ of the USB drive from your PC to ensure that any delayed writes have finished.

6) Check that the TransPort router recognises it by inserting it into a USB port on the front of the router, then connect to the router’s CLI (command line interface) via one of the following methods:

a) A Telnet or SSH session to the router’s IP address
b) A terminal emulator session (for example using Hyperterminal or TeraTerm) to the router’s ASY (serial) port

Issue the following command:

dir u: <enter>

If the USB drive is recognised, the CLI should report its size and other parameters. Remove the USB drive from the router.

7) Insert the USB drive back into your PC, and copy the .all file and the autoexec.bat file into the root directory of the USB drive.

8) When the file copying has finished, perform a ‘safe hardware removal’ of the USB drive from your PC to ensure that any delayed writes have finished.

9) Insert the USB drive into a USB port on the front of the router once more.

The firmware upgrade process should now begin. During the process, two or three of the LEDs on the front of the router will flash repeatedly to indicate that the files are being copied. After a few minutes, these LEDs should stop flashing, and most of the LEDs other than the original two or three on the front panel will flash repeatedly. This indicates that the upgrade process is complete, i.e. that the autoexec.bat file has finished with no errors.

10) Remove the USB drive from the router’s USB port.

11) Power cycle the router.

Please note, if the LEDs did not flash as expected, this could indicate a problem with the upgrade. In this case please do NOT reboot the router, instead connect to the router and determine if there is a problem by issuing the “scan” and “dir” commands.

12) Once the router has restarted, enter the following CLI command: ati5<enter>

The CLI will return a lot of information about the router, and the second and third lines will show the firmware image and bootloader version numbers. This can be used to verify that the upgrade process has been successful – for example:

ati5
Digi TransPort WR44-U4T1-WE1-XX Ser#:160601 HW Revision: 7902a
Software Build Ver5162. Aug 13 2012 05:12:25 SW
ARM Bios Ver 6.75 v39 400MHz B512-M512-F80-O0,0 MAC:00042d027359
Power Up Profile: 0

Method B: Upgrading individual firmware files

Please note: this method should be used if any existing configuration on the router needs to be retained.

1) Obtain the latest firmware zip file, which can be found at one of the following links depending on your model:

Digi TransPort firmware files

Sarian firmware files

It is very important that the correct firmware file is used for the model number being upgraded. If you attempt to load firmware designed for one model onto a different model the router may cease to function and will be difficult to recover.

To locate the correct firmware for your model, after clicking on a link above, select the subdirectory containing the version you wish to download (the newest version is recommended) then the subdirectory relating to your model. Select the zip file to download it.

2) Extract all of the files, from the downloaded zip archive, to a directory on your PC.

3) On your PC, rename the following two files as follows:

Rename the image file (the main firmware image) to image.tmp
Rename the *.rom file (the bootloader) to sbios1 (with no extension)

4) Create a file named autoexec.bat and open it in a text editor (for example Notepad in Windows). Add some or all of the following lines – the lines shown in bold will always need to be present, but the other lines should be amended as appropriate so that all of the files from the original firmware zip file are copied to the router. It is important to include a blank line at the end of the file after ‘flashleds’. For the example firmware version referred to, the autoexec file needs to contain the following lines:

ERROR_EXIT
del *.web
copy u:image.tmp image.tmp
copy u:sbios1 sbios1

copy u:logcodes.txt logcodes.txt
copy u:wr11.web wr11.web
copy u:python.zip python.zip
copy u:wizards.zip wizards.zip
del image
ren image.tmp image
copy image image4
move sbios1 sbios
scanr
flashleds

< BLANK LINE>

5) Using your PC, format a USB flash drive. Note that this will erase all data on the USB drive. Not all USB drives work with Digi TransPort or Sarian routers. Older firmware supports only FAT16 formatted drives but newer firmware supports FAT32. NTFS is not supported.

6) Once formatting is complete, perform a ‘safe hardware removal’ of the USB drive from your PC to ensure that any delayed writes have finished.

7) Check that the TransPort router recognises it by inserting it into a USB port on the front of the router, then connect to the router’s CLI (command line interface) via one of the following methods:

a) A Telnet or SSH session to the router’s IP address
b) A terminal emulator session (for example using Hyperterminal or TeraTerm) to the router’s ASY (serial) port

Issue the following command:

dir u: <enter>

If the USB drive is recognised, the CLI should report its size and other parameters. Remove the USB drive from the router.

8) Insert the USB drive back into your PC, and copy all of the firmware upgrade files into the root directory of the USB drive. The files should include all those from the original firmware zip file (with the image and bootloader files renamed as above) plus the autoexec.bat file.

9) When the file copying has finished, perform a ‘safe hardware removal’ of the USB drive from your PC to ensure that any delayed writes have finished.

10) Insert the USB drive into a USB port on the front of the router once more.

The firmware upgrade process should now begin. During the process, two or three of the LEDs on the front of the router will flash repeatedly to indicate that the files are being copied. After a few minutes, these LEDs should stop flashing, and most of the LEDs other than the original two or three on the front panel will flash repeatedly. This indicates that the upgrade process is complete, i.e. that the autoexec.bat file has finished with no errors.

11) Remove the USB drive from the router’s USB port.

12) Power cycle the router.

Please note, if the LEDs did not flash as expected, this could indicate a problem with the upgrade. In this case please do NOT reboot the router, instead connect to the router and determine if there is a problem by issuing the “scan” and “dir” commands.

13) Once the router has restarted, enter the following CLI command: ati5<enter>

The CLI will return a lot of information about the router.The second and third lines will show the firmware image and bootloader version numbers. This can be used to verify that the upgrade process has been successful – for example:

ati5
Digi TransPort WR44-U4T1-WE1-XX Ser#:160601 HW Revision: 7902a
Software Build Ver5162. Aug 13 2012 05:12:25 SW
ARM Bios Ver 6.75 v39 400MHz B512-M512-F80-O0,0 MAC:00042d027359
Power Up Profile: 0

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The debug.txt file is useful for troubleshooting a variety of issues with Digi TransPort and Sarian branded routers.  There are a several methods available for extracting the debug.txt file, below are some common examples.

FTP Client

Using an FTP client, such as, Filezilla make an FTP connection to the router and “drag” the debug.txt file to
the PC.

FTP Using Firefox

Using Firefox, make an FTP connection to the router by typing the IP address of the router prefixed with: ftp://

For example: ftp://10.1.208.1

Enter the login details for the router and click “OK


Right click the “debug.txt” file then “Save Link AS”

FTP Using Internet Explorer

From Internet Explorer, make an FTP connection to the router by typing the IP address of the router prefixed with: ftp://

For example: ftp://10.1.208.1

Enter the login details for the router and click “OK”

Right click the debug.txt file then “Save target As”

HTTP (Web Browser) Method

Browse to the router’s IP address, login using an administrative username and password.
Then navigate to:

Administration – File Management > FLASH Directory

Right click on “debug.txt” and click “Save Target As”

NOTE: In other browsers the menu may be slightly different, for example with Firefox uses
“Save Link As”

Using “Execute A Command” Method

Browse to the router’s IP address, login using an administrative username and password.
Then navigate to:

Administration – Execute a command


And enter the following command:

type debug.txt

Click “Execute”

Using Microsoft Windows Telnet

NOTE: The debug.txt file is quite large so it may be necessary to increase the scroll back buffer in
telnet to make it large enough to capture the full file.

Click on the C:\ icon and select “Properties”.  Next click “Layout” and set the Screen Buffer Size Height to its maximum.  Click “OK”

Next, Telnet to the router’s IP address:

Enter the username and password when prompted.  Once connected issue the command:  “type debug.txt

There will be a large amount of output scrolling on the screen which may take several seconds.  The command is complete once [ENDCFG] is seen.

To copy the file, right-click on the page and select “Mark” from the drop-down menu:

Select the contents by right-clicking on the page and selecting “Select All” from the drop-down menu:

Copy the contents, by right-clicking and selecting “Copy”:

Open up “Notepad” and select “Paste” and save the contents.

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This Knowledge Article will describe how to configure a Digi TransPort router to failover between 2 IPsec tunnels and recover automatically.

Configure IPsec Tunnel 0

Open the web interface of the device and navigate to Configuration – Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec > IPsec Tunnels > IPsec 0

Configure the primary IPsec tunnel Phase 2 like desired. For example  :

Note : for more information on how to build an IPsec tunnel between two Digi TransPort routers, please see at the end of this article for a link to an Application Note

ipsec 0 phase 2

Makes sure that the tunnel is set to “Whenever a route to the destination is available” and if the tunnel is down and a packet is ready to be sent to “bring the tunnel up

tunnel up config

Repeat these steps for the second IPsec tunnel.

Configure IPsec Tunnel 0 out of service

Navigate to Configuration – Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec > IPsec Tunnels > IPsec 0 > Advanced

Check the box “Go out of service if automatic establishment fails

out of service

Click Apply and Save Configuration.

Configure IPsec Tunnel 1 inhibit

Navigate to Configuration – Network > Virtual Private Networking (VPN) > IPsec > IPsec Tunnels > IPsec 1 > Advanced

Under “Inhibit this IPsec tunnel when IPsec tunnels” enter 0

tunnel 1 inhibit

This option will prevent IPsec Tunnel 1 to be built if IPsec Tunnel 0 is established.

Verify failover

You can verify that the failover is happening and the second is started as soon as the first IPsec tunnel is set out of service in the eventlog :

08:55:08, 31 Oct 2014,Eroute 1 VPN up peer: responder
08:55:08, 31 Oct 2014,New IPSec SA created by responder
08:55:08, 31 Oct 2014,(1778) IKE Notification: Initial Contact,RX
08:55:08, 31 Oct 2014,(1779) IKE Notification: Responder Lifetime,RX
08:55:08, 31 Oct 2014,(1778) New Phase 2 IKE Session  37.83.216.184,Initiator
08:55:08, 31 Oct 2014,(1776) IKE Keys Negotiated. Peer: responder
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,(1760) IKE SA Removed. Peer: responder,Dead Peer Detected
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,(1776) New Phase 1 IKE Session 37.83.216.184,Initiator
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,IKE Request Received From Eroute 1
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,(1775) New Phase 1 IKE Session  90.121.123.244,Initiator
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,IKE Request Received From Eroute 0
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,Eroute 0 Out Of Service,No SAs
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,Eroute 0 VPN down peer: responder
08:55:07, 31 Oct 2014,IPSec SA Deleted ID responder,Dead Peer Detected

The device will however keep trying to build the IPsec tunnel 0 in the background until the remote peer comes back online/is available. At which point, the IPsec tunnel 1 will be dropped down due to the inhibit configuration.

08:59:07, 31 Oct 2014,(1789) IKE SA Removed. Peer: responder,Successful Negotiation
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,Eroute 1 VPN down peer: responder
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,IPSec SA Deleted ID responder,Eroute inhibited
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,Eroute 0 Available,No SAs
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,Eroute 0 VPN up peer: responder
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,New IPSec SA created by responder
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,(1789) IKE Notification: Initial Contact,RX
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,(1790) IKE Notification: Responder Lifetime,RX
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,(1789) New Phase 2 IKE Session 90.121.123.244,Initiator
08:58:38, 31 Oct 2014,(1788) IKE Keys Negotiated. Peer: responder
08:58:37, 31 Oct 2014,(1788) New Phase 1 IKE Session 90.121.123.244,Initiator
08:58:37, 31 Oct 2014,IKE Request Received From Eroute 0
08:58:37, 31 Oct 2014,(1787) IKE SA Removed. Peer: ,Negotiation Failure
08:58:37, 31 Oct 2014,(1787) IKE Negotiation Failed. Peer: ,Retries Exceeded
08:58:27, 31 Oct 2014,IKE Request Received From Eroute 0
08:58:17, 31 Oct 2014,IKE Request Received From Eroute 0

You can find a more in depth Application Note on how to build an IPsec tunnel between two Digi TransPort routers using Pre-Shared key like in our example at the following link :

http://ftp1.digi.com/support/documentation/AN_010_IPSec_Over_Cellular_using_Digi_Transport_Routers.pdf

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There are five main methods by which new firmware can be loaded onto Digi TransPort or Sarian routers: Digi Device Cloud (DC), Web interface, FlashWriter, S/FTP and USB flash drive.

Note that, because of changes in the firmware, the procedure for loading firmware has changed for the S/FTP and USB flash drive procedures beginning at firmware version 5.2.9.13.  Please note the different procedures when using these methods.

1. Digi Device Cloud / Remote Manager 2.0

After setting up your account on DC and configuring your TransPort to connect to DC, log into your DC account and add the TransPort if it is not already added. You will need to download the correct firmware to your PC. The “FTP” version of the firmware file is needed. (See the Web interface method in #2.) Right-click on the TransPort and select Firmware, then Update Firmware. Select Browse and navigate to the firmware file. Select the Update Firmware button. Wait while the process is completed.
Scheduled firmware updates using DC. In DC go to Schedules. Click on New Schedule. On the Device tab there is the option for Gateway Firmware Update. Click on it. Now a window will pop up with a ‘Browse’ to button. Click on it and browse to where you have the file saved on your desktop. You’ll also need to give a ‘Description’ to the operation before you can proceed. The Description field is at the top of the New Schedule window in yellow.

Then hit the Schedule button in the lower right hand corner. A new window will pop up showing you all the devices in your account. Pick which ones you want the firmware to be loaded too and on the left hand side pick the Future option and then the time/date you want it to happen.

That’s it. You can monitor the progress of the operation in the Operations window right next to the Schedules window. You have to keep hitting the refresh button to update though. If you’ve chosen multiple units to upload then double click on the operation and you’ll see which units completed and which ones, if any, failed.

2. Web interface method

The Web interface method of upgrading firmware can be used locally or remotely. It is available only in Digi TransPort firmware versions 5.149 and later. The method involves clicking the “Update Firmware” option in the Web interface, browsing to a local or remote zip file containing the firmware, then clicking the “Update” button to start the automated update process. Only individual firmware files are replaced during the upgrade, so when a unit is upgraded via the Web interface method its current saved configuration will be retained.
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using the Web interface

3. FlashWriter method

The FlashWriter method of upgrading firmware can be used only locally, i.e. a serial and/or Ethernet connection between your PC and the router to be upgraded is required. With the FlashWriter method the entire system flash will be overwritten, which means that any configuration will be lost.
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using Flashwriter – Serial Procedure
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using Flashwriter – Ethernet Method

4. S/FTP method

The SFTP or FTP method of upgrading firmware can be used locally or remotely. A little more background knowledge is required in order to use the S/FTP method. It is assumed that the user is familiar with the operation of S/FTP client software and Telnet or SSH client software. Only individual firmware files are replaced during the upgrade, so when a unit is upgraded via S/FTP its current saved configuration will be retained.
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using FTP to a firmware version earlier than 5.2.9.13
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using FTP to firmware version 5.2.9.13 or later

5. USB flash drive method

The USB flash drive method of upgrading firmware can be used only locally. The USB flash drive method is especially useful for upgrading routers during a site visit. Once the USB drive is configured the update process involves simply inserting the USB drive into the front of the router, waiting for a few minutes for a flashing LED sequence to indicate that the upgrade is complete, removing the USB drive then rebooting the router (for example by power-cycling it). There are two methods of upgrading firmware with a USB flash drive:

Method A) Loading a complete flash memory image onto the router, in the form of a ‘.all file’ – this is similar to the FlashWriter method, in that the entire system flash will be overwritten and any existing configuration will be lost.

Method B) Upgrading individual firmware files – this is similar to the FTP or Web interface methods, in that since only individual firmware files are updated, any current saved configuration will be retained.
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using a USB flash drive to a firmware version earlier than 5.2.9.13
How to upgrade the firmware on a Digi TransPort router using a USB flash drive to firmware version 5.2.9.13 or later

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Digi Remote Manager (5)

View category →

Remote Manager uses tags to categorize devices.  You may want to edit the tags associated with a device if the purpose of a device changes or if you use tags to create a new sub-category of devices. Device tags are stored in Remote manager and not on the device.

To add a tag to a device:

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Select the device you want to update.
  3. Click More > Edit Tags. The Edit Tags dialog appears.
  4. Enter the name of a tag in the text box and click Add Tag.
  5. Click Save. The new tag is associated with the device.

To edit tags for a device:

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Select the device you want to update.
  3. Click More > Edit Tags. The Edit Tags dialog appears.
  4. Click the tag name you want to edit. The tag name appears in the text box.
  5. Edit the tag name as needed and click Change Tag.
  6. Click Save. The new tag is associated with the device.

To remove a tag from a device:

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Select the device you want to update.
  3. Click More > Edit Tags. The Edit Tags dialog appears.
  4. Click the red X under action to delete the corresponding tag underStream Name.
  5. Click Save. The new tag is associated with the device.

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The groups feature allows you to add or create a group and assign a list of devices to that group. You can create a hierarchical structure of device groups to help organize your device inventory.

To create a group

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Click the Groups button and select Add Group. The Add Group dialog appears.
  3. Type a group name.
  4. Choose the folder where you want to place the new group. The default is the root level.
  5. Click the Add Group button. The group name appears in the folder structure under the root directory in the left pane.

To add a device to a group
You can add one or more devices to a device group, and can add up to 500 devices to a group at one time.

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Select the device(s) you want to add to a group:
  • Click any device list item to select that device.
  • Use Control-click or Shift-click to select multiple devices or a range of devices.
  1. Click More in the Devices toolbar and select Assign to Groupfrom the Organize category. The Add to Group dialog appears.
  2. Choose a group from the drop-down list.
  3. Click Assign to Group. The devices are added to the selected device group.

To move/remove a device from a group

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Click a group name in your list of device groups you wish to remove the device from.
  3. Select the device(s) you want to remove from a group:
  • Click any device list item to select that device.
  • Use Control-click or Shift-click to select multiple devices or a range of devices.
  1. Click More in the Devices toolbar and select Assign to Groupfrom the Organize category. The Add to Group dialog appears.
  2. Choose a group from the drop-down list.  You may also select the “/” to move it to the root directory.
  3. Click Assign to Group. The devices are added to the selected device group or root.

To edit device group properties
You can edit device group properties, including the group name and its parent in the groups hierarchy.

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Click a group name in your list of device groups.
  3. Click Groups and select Edit Group from the drop-down.
  4. Make changes to the group name and location as needed.
  5. Click Edit Group to confirm your changes.

To Remove a device group
Removing a device group removes the group itself and moves all devices in that group to the parent level in your device list.

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Click to select the device group you want to remove from the device hierarchy in the left panel under Groups.
  3. Click Groups and select Remove Group from the drop-down. A confirmation dialog appears asking you to confirm that you want to remove that group.
  4. Click Yes to confirm. The group is deleted and any devices in that group move to the parent level in your device hierarchy.

To show or hide device groups
This feature will allow you to toggle the Groups display to hidden or visible.

  1. Click Device Management > Devices.
  2. Click the Show/Hide Groups button on the far left side of theDevices toolbar.

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This article describes how to configure Digi Device Cloud or Digi Remote Manager to send an E-Mail notification when a device goes offline.

Note: This article assumes that you have already created a Digi Device Cloud account or a Digi Remote Manager account, that your device is configured to connect to the cloud and added to your account.

Guidelines for NDS devices (Digi Connect WAN 3G, ConnectPort X etc..) can be found here : Configure a Digi Connect WAN or ConnectPort Gateway for Device Cloud connection

Guidelines for Digi TransPort can be found here : Configuring a Digi TransPort for Remote Manager connectivity

Guidelines for adding a Digi device to the Digi Device Cloud or Remote Manager platform can be found here : Adding a Digi Device to the Digi Device Cloud or Remote Manager Platform and here Add a Digi TransPort to your Remote Manager account

Create an Alarm

1. Log into your Digi Device Cloud or Digi Remote Manager account.
2. Click on the Device Management tab.
3. Click on the Alarms tab.
4. Click on the Add button

User-added image

The Add Alarm window will open.

1. Select Device Offline in the Alarm Type drop down menu.
2. Chose a name for the Alarm. (default is Device Offline)
3. Chose a description for the Alarm. (default is Detects when a device disconnects from Device Cloud and fails to reconnect within the specified time)
4. Chose for how long the cloud should wait before firing an alarm (defaul is 5 minutes. This is recomended in case of cellular devices that can sometimes lose network connectivity due to bad reception and allow it to reconnect)
5. Resets when device reconnects will allow the alarm status to be reset as soon as the device reconnects to the cloud.
6. Chose the Scope of the alarm. It can be per group or per device. Per Group allows to select the root directory (in this case the alarm will be applied to all devices on this account) or a single group.
7. Click Create to create the Alarm.

User-added image

Create an E-Mail Notification

1. Navigate to Admin Account Settings > Notifications
2. Click on the Add button.

User-added image

1. Chose a name for the Notification
2. Chose a Description for the notification. This will be shown in the “Subject” field of the E-Mail
3. Chose an E-Mail address to send the notification to.
4. Select if you wish to receive a daily summary of your alarms and at which time.
5. Check this box to receive an E-Mail notification each time an alarm triggers (Each time a device goes offline this will trigger an alarm which in result will trigger an E-Mail)

User-added image

6. Select “Send notification for the following alarms” and in the box, type the name of previously created alarm, by default “Device Offline” and press enter.
7. In the list, chose the previously created alarm and click on the “+” icon

User-added image

8. Click Save

User-added image

Testing

To test that the Alarms and notification are working, simply disconnect/turn off one of your devices which are monitored by this alarm. After the selected delay triggers, the alarm should fire and you should receive an E-Mail similar to this one :

User-added image

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Introduction:

This article will discuss how to configure your Digi TransPort router for use with Remote Manager by utilizing the built-in Web User Interface (WebUI) of the Digi TransPort itself.

Changing the Remote Manager connection settings from the WebUI

The Digi TransPort WebUI can be accessed locally via the local IP address (LAN or WAN), or the Cllular Mobile IP address (provided your cellular account is one which supports Mobile Termination, and that you left a pinhole for HTTP or HTTPS through which to get to the WebUI if configured for IP Passthrough).

If you know the Mobile IP address and have met the conditions above, you should be able to open the TransPort’s WebUI by opening a browser to the Mobile IP of your TransPort at this time, but keep in mind that accessing the TransPort WebUI via the Local IP is preferred if available, since it doesn’t affect your cellular bill, is faster, and generally less prone to connection loss.

If you can get to the Local IP of the TransPort (this is an Ethernet or Wi-Fi connected TransPort and you’re at that location), you should access the TransPort’s WebUI using the Local IP address instead. The Digi Device Discovery Tool for Windows can be used to discover the Local IP address of the TransPort, if unknown. If you run the Device Discovery Tool and see a “No devices found?” message, and you’ve verified your TransPort is both powered on and has a solid Link LED present, you may want to check this article for Digi Device Discovery Troubleshooting Tips.

Assuming you can access either the Mobile (WAN) or Local (LAN) IP address and are now looking at the Web User Interface of your Digi TransPort:

1. Open Configuration -> Remote Management -> Remote Manager on the WebUI, then click the check box for “Enable Remote Management and Configuration using Remote Manager”. It should look similar to this:

2. On the page above, from the drop down menu, select the desired Device Cloud server :remotemanager.digi.com for the US Cloud or remotemanager-uk.digi.com for the EU Cloud.

3. Ensure the “Automatically reconnect to the server after being disconnected” box is checked as shown in the example, and configured with the 10 second value listed (or a reasonable alternative), as this is the box that tells your router to re-connect to the Remote Management server, should the connection get broken for some reason

4. Apply any changes by clicking the Apply button, when configuration is complete.

5. Click the blue “here” link to save the configuration, as shown below:

6. Click the “Save All” button from the ensuing page and you should get a message saying “The configuration has been saved successfully!”, then click the OK button.

7. After a minute or so, you should see that your Transport has established (i.e. state = ESTAB) a Remote Management connection to the Remote Manager server by viewing the Management -> Connections -> IP Connections page under the “General Purpose Sockets” listing towards the bottom:

In Closure: If all went well, your Digi TransPort should now be “Connected” on the Remote Manager server you selected in step 1 above.

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Adding your Digi TransPort to Remote Manager

  1. Log into your Digi Remote Manager account.
  2. Click on the Device Management tab.
  3. Click on the Add Devices button on the tool bar

  4. Add the Digi TransPort by either discovering it locally, or manually adding the Device ID, using either of the the two methods described below:

Discovery method:

  1. After hitting Add Devices (step 3 above), click the Discover >> button.

  2. Click the Discover button on the 2nd Add Devices screen.

  3. Select the Digi TransPort to be added, and click OK.

Manual method:

  1. After hitting Add Devices (step 3 above), click the dropdown which defaults to MAC Address, and select Device ID instead.

  2. Populate the entry field to the right of Device ID with the Device ID of your Digi TransPort.  This can be obtained from the Digi TransPort WebUI Home page if needed.

  3. Click the Add button, then click OK.

Your Digi TransPort should now be added to Remote Manager:

After your device is added, it should show up in the list of devices as disconnected (a Red icon beside the device means Disconnected, see below).

After a minute or so, refresh the device list by clicking the Refresh button, and verify a Connected state as seen below.  A Blue icon indicate the device is connected to Remote Manager.

 

Conclusion:

If you see the Blue/Connected icon next to your TransPort, it means that your device was properly configured, and you can now manage your TransPort on Remote Manager.  If still not connected after a a few minutes, you’ll want to re-check your TransPort Remote Management and Network configurations, as well as make sure you aren’t running into any Firewall issues between the TransPort and Remote Manager.

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Digi Device Cloud (5)

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HOW TO: Change the Device Cloud Name on Gateways Using Device Manager from the Device Cloud
To change the server name for the Device Cloud connection from your Device Cloud account, you will navigate to the Device Management tab, right click on the desired Digi device and select Properties.

From the Properties screen, navigate to Advanced Configuration > Remote management connection > Remote management connection 1.  Type in the server name (en://my.devicecloud.com) in the Server address field:

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Click Save to save the changes.  Your device may disconnect from the Device Cloud and reconnect using the new name.

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The following example shows how to create a task on Digi’s Device Cloud to change the Remote Management Server Address in a TransPort.
Log into Device Cloud
Click on Device Management > Schedules and then click New Schedule
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Click Start Walkthrough
Type in the description at the top of the screen for the task
On the left menu, select Command Line Interface
For the first command, enter cloud 0 server my.devicecloud.com
On the left menu, select Command Line Interface, again
For the second command, enter config 0 saveall
Then click Schedule at the bottom right hand corner
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Either select Immediate or Future to schedule when you wish to apply this change
If you choose Future, you will need to use the drop down buttons to specify the date and time and then you will see the scheduled job on the next screen.
If you choose Immediate, it will simply complete the job.
You will need to select the devices you wish to apply these changes to.  If selecting more than one, use the “Ctrl” button to select these.
Select Run Now at the bottom of the screen if you choose Immediate or Schedule if you choose Future.
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Here are the results for a scheduled job.
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After the scheduled event, you can check to see if it performed by going to Device Management  >  Operations.  You should be able to see if it successfully completed or not.  You may also click on Operation Details for each individual device.
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You can also see the changes in each individual device by going to Device Management > Devices, selecting a particular device by double clicking on it, click on Configuration, Remote Management, Remote Manager, Remote Manager Config, then check the Connect to Device Cloud server.  At first you will see the previous server name, but if you click Refresh at the bottom of the page, it will update.
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This article describes how to configure Digi Device Cloud or Digi Remote Manager to send an E-Mail notification when a device goes offline.

Note: This article assumes that you have already created a Digi Device Cloud account or a Digi Remote Manager account, that your device is configured to connect to the cloud and added to your account.

Guidelines for NDS devices (Digi Connect WAN 3G, ConnectPort X etc..) can be found here : Configure a Digi Connect WAN or ConnectPort Gateway for Device Cloud connection

Guidelines for Digi TransPort can be found here : Configuring a Digi TransPort for Remote Manager connectivity

Guidelines for adding a Digi device to the Digi Device Cloud or Remote Manager platform can be found here : Adding a Digi Device to the Digi Device Cloud or Remote Manager Platform and here Add a Digi TransPort to your Remote Manager account

Create an Alarm

1. Log into your Digi Device Cloud or Digi Remote Manager account.
2. Click on the Device Management tab.
3. Click on the Alarms tab.
4. Click on the Add button

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The Add Alarm window will open.

1. Select Device Offline in the Alarm Type drop down menu.
2. Chose a name for the Alarm. (default is Device Offline)
3. Chose a description for the Alarm. (default is Detects when a device disconnects from Device Cloud and fails to reconnect within the specified time)
4. Chose for how long the cloud should wait before firing an alarm (defaul is 5 minutes. This is recomended in case of cellular devices that can sometimes lose network connectivity due to bad reception and allow it to reconnect)
5. Resets when device reconnects will allow the alarm status to be reset as soon as the device reconnects to the cloud.
6. Chose the Scope of the alarm. It can be per group or per device. Per Group allows to select the root directory (in this case the alarm will be applied to all devices on this account) or a single group.
7. Click Create to create the Alarm.

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Create an E-Mail Notification

1. Navigate to Admin Account Settings > Notifications
2. Click on the Add button.

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1. Chose a name for the Notification
2. Chose a Description for the notification. This will be shown in the “Subject” field of the E-Mail
3. Chose an E-Mail address to send the notification to.
4. Select if you wish to receive a daily summary of your alarms and at which time.
5. Check this box to receive an E-Mail notification each time an alarm triggers (Each time a device goes offline this will trigger an alarm which in result will trigger an E-Mail)

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6. Select “Send notification for the following alarms” and in the box, type the name of previously created alarm, by default “Device Offline” and press enter.
7. In the list, chose the previously created alarm and click on the “+” icon

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8. Click Save

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Testing

To test that the Alarms and notification are working, simply disconnect/turn off one of your devices which are monitored by this alarm. After the selected delay triggers, the alarm should fire and you should receive an E-Mail similar to this one :

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The following example shows how to create a task on Digi’s Device Cloud to change the Remote Management Server Address in a TransPort.
Log into Device Cloud
Click on Device Management > Schedules and then click New Schedule
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Click Start Walkthrough
Type in the description at the top of the screen for the task
On the left menu, select Command Line Interface
For the first command, enter cloud 0 server my.devicecloud.com
On the left menu, select Command Line Interface, again
For the second command, enter config 0 saveall
Then click Schedule at the bottom right hand corner
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Either select Immediate or Future to schedule when you wish to apply this change
If you choose Future, you will need to use the drop down buttons to specify the date and time and then you will see the scheduled job on the next screen.
If you choose Immediate, it will simply complete the job.
You will need to select the devices you wish to apply these changes to.  If selecting more than one, use the “Ctrl” button to select these.
Select Run Now at the bottom of the screen if you choose Immediate or Schedule if you choose Future.
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Here are the results for a scheduled job.
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After the scheduled event, you can check to see if it performed by going to Device Management  >  Operations.  You should be able to see if it successfully completed or not.  You may also click on Operation Details for each individual device.
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You can also see the changes in each individual device by going to Device Management > Devices, selecting a particular device by double clicking on it, click on Configuration, Remote Management, Remote Manager, Remote Manager Config, then check the Connect to Device Cloud server.  At first you will see the previous server name, but if you click Refresh at the bottom of the page, it will update.
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One very useful aspect of Device Management on the Digi Device Cloud is the ability to view the Connection History of a device.  This of course refers to the connection history of that device as viewed from Device Cloud, and is a record of a device’s connections and disconnections with the server, for whatever reason.

Device Cloud Connection History (from the device UI):

Getting the Connection History from the Data Streams API:

As seen above, the Connection History of a device is something which Device Cloud keeps track of.  A screen like the one above may be useful when wanting to know the current state of a device or what’s been going on with it, but short of taking a screenshot or copying/pasting that information into a text file, the information isn’t very portable.  The good news is, the Connection History is something which is also tracked as a Data Stream, and each of the Connect/Disconnect events is a separate Data Point within that Stream.

To query the Data Stream Connection History if the same device, we must query for the Data Points which make up that Stream as follows:

/ws/DataPoint/{deviceId}/management/connections/

Example Request:  /ws/DataPoint/00000000-00000000-00409DFF-FF5DF1CB/management/connections/

Response (for a single Data Point of the Stream):

<?xml version=”1.0″ encoding=”ISO-8859-1″?>
<result>
<resultSize>206</resultSize>
<requestedSize>1000</requestedSize>
<pageCursor>27f2d9aa-beab-11e5-92dc-fa163ea15feb</pageCursor>
<requestedStartTime>-1</requestedStartTime>
<requestedEndTime>-1</requestedEndTime>
<DataPoint>
<id>f5e6756c-75c8-11e5-8dc1-fa163ee3abab</id>
<cstId>70</cstId>
<streamId>00000000-00000000-00409DFF-FF5DF1CB/management/connections</streamId>
<timestamp>1445194168409</timestamp>
<timestampISO>2015-10-18T18:49:28.409Z</timestampISO>
<serverTimestamp>1445194168412</serverTimestamp>
<serverTimestampISO>2015-10-18T18:49:28.412Z</serverTimestampISO>
<data>{“connectTime”:”2015-10-18T03:14:07.442Z”,”disconnectTime”:”2015-10-18T18:49:28.409Z”,”type”:”Wi-Fi”,”remoteIp”:”213.35.189.122″,”localIp”:”192.168.82.204″,”bytesSent”:70412,”bytesReceived”:69588,”session”:”6b861b2f-bd52-4455-b9fc-dc92693460db”}</data>
<description/>
<quality>0</quality>
</DataPoint>…
</result>

As can be seen in the <resultSize> field, there were 206 Data Points in the response to the query, so I’ve only listed one Data Point as an example of the type of data retrieved from the Connection History Data Stream.

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NetCloud Engine (82)

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Summary

Using a Device Authentication Key to install a Linux NetCloud Client (no user login).


Configuration

Configuration Difficulty: Intermediate

When you download the Device Authentication Key apikey.pertino, you must place the file into the “/tmp/” directory of the linux machine BEFORE you install the NetCloud Client and the file needs to be owned by root and have permissions 600.

When you install NetCloud Client, it will look for this file and use it for authentication to the NetCloud Engine or NetCloud Engine (Formerly Pertino) network. If the Device Authentication file is missing, the client will operate the same as today, awaiting a username/password with the “pauth” command.


Related Articles/Links

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Summary

This article has instructions on the procedure to install NetCloud Engine from a Windows command line interface.


Configuration

Configuration Difficulty: Easy
  • Step 1: From the directory where the NetCloud Engine installer is located run the following command:
    • C:\Users\test\Downloads>Pertino.exe /sp- /verysilent /u username:password
  • Step 2: Use the NetCloud Engine account email and password (username:password)

Note: If you are running Windows Hyper-V which has no GUI, you may get an error message regarding the oledlg.dll file. You can get a copy from another Server (same OS family for example 2012 server if your Hyper-V is also running 2012) and place in the c:\windows\system32 & SySWoW64 directory.

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How do I install the Gateway?

The Gateway installation procedure begins with the standard NetCloud Engine client installation procedure.  Please follow the instructions provided here.

NOTE: Please ensure that Active Directory and DNS Servers in your network are running the NetCloud Engine client.

How do I install the Gateway on Amazon AWS?

Create a VPC:

  1. Start the VPC wizard from AWS Console Home > VPC page.
  2. Click “Start VPC Wizard”.
  3. In “Step 1: Select a VPC Configuration”, choose “VPC with a Single Public Subnet”
  4. In “Step 2: VPC with a Single Public Subnet”, provide a VPC name.
  • Don’t change the auto-populated fields.
  • Click “Create VPC”.
    • AWS will respond with a “VPC Successfully Created”.
    • Click OK.

Create instances that will be the NetCloud Engine Gateway:
1. Navigate to the AWS Console > EC2 page.
2. Click on Launch Instance.
3. Navigate to the AWS Marketplace and search for Ubuntu 12.04.
4. Choose the “m3.large” instance and click “Next: Configure Instance Details”.
5. In “Step 3: Configure Instance Details”:

  • Select the VPC you created above in the Network drop-down.
  • Enable auto-assign Public IP.

NOTE: This is a toggle selection.  Be sure it is “enabled”.

6. Review the storage settings.
7. Configure the Security Group settings.

  • Specify SSH.
  • Click “Review and Launch” and, in the next screen, “Launch”.

Select or create key pairs:

You will need to choose an existing key pair or create a new key pair to connect your instances.

  1. If using an existing key pair, you will need to acknowledge that you have access to the selected private key file.
  2. The “Launch Status” page will display indicating that your instances are launching.
  3. Click “View Instances”.

View instances:

You will need to disable the “Check Network Source/Destination” on the new instance.

  1. Select the instance you created.
  2. In the “Actions” drop down, select “Networking > Change Source/Dest. Check”.
  3. Ensure that the setting is “Disabled” in the resulting dialog box.

Configure route tables for Gateway:

Next, we need to configure route tables so resources in the VPC use the Gateway for communication.

  1. Navigate to the AWS Console home page.
  2. Select “VPC” from the left-hand column in the “Resources” pane.

3. Select your VPC from the list.
4. Select that VPC’s “Route table” from the Summary tab.
5. Select the Route table and then select the “Routes” tab below.

6. Select “Edit”.
7. Select “Add another route”.
8. In the Destination field add 50.203.224.0/24
9. In the Target field add the ID of the instance you created above.
10. Click Save.

SSH to your instance and install NetCloud Engine

You need to SSH to your instance and install NetCloud Engine.  More information can be found here in the “Using apt” section, but this procedure duplicates that process.

1. SSH to your instance and install the NetCloud Engine GPG signing key:

$ wget -O – http://reposerver.pertino.com/Pertino-GPG-Key.pub | sudo apt-key add –

2. Add the NetCloud Engine repository server to the distribution sources list:

$ sudo sh -c “echo ‘deb http://reposerver.pertino.com/debs precise multiverse’ > /etc/apt/sources.list.d/pertino.list”

3. Install the NetCloud Engine client:

$ sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get -y install pertino-client

4. Enter your username and password when prompted.

5. Confirm that NetCloud Engine has installed correctly by issuing an ifconfig command to check that a pertino0 interface has been added.

Restarting the Pertino client

You will need to restart the NetCloud Engine client.  Issue the following command from the Linux CLI:

$ sudo service pgateway restart

Adding a route to your router configuration

You will need to add a route to your router configuration to enable communication between your network and the Gateway.  This usually involves command-line or web access to a router’s configuration.  A typical CLI command might look like this:

$ ip route 50.203.224.0 /24 10.10.130.10

where 10.10.130.10 is the IPv4 address of the NetCloud Engine gateway.  This static route will need to be added to the site router configuration or to an Amazon VPC route table to enable connectivity to NetCloud Engine Gateway.

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Summary

The Application and Content Filtering application enables administrators to set security policies for both ports & protocols, as well as specific applications. These rules are similar to network Access Control Lists (ACLs) or firewall rules, where access is allowed or denied between a source and destination devices.

NOTE: All rules are analyzed in order, e.g. rule 1, then rule 2, then rule 3, etc. For example, if your first rule is to allow access to “ANY” device and your second rule is to deny access to a device, the second rule will not be “hit”. Changing the order of the rules will ensure the correct policy is applied.

How It Works

The DPI engine identifies traffic packet characteristics above layers 1-3 of the OSI model, and extends to layer 7. It uses techniques such as surgical pattern matching, conversation semantics, deep protocol dissection, behaviors and statistical analysis, future flow awareness, and flow association. These techniques allow for more in-depth visibility of network traffic by identifying applications that are delivered over HTTP port 80, or those that “port-hop” in attempt to avoid detection. So, customers can leverage DPI to provide insight into user behavior and traffic patterns. For example, which machines are communicating and what applications are being accessed.


Configuration

Configuration Difficulty: Intermediate

Application & Content Filtering is enabled through the Security tab. Administrators can access it via the left-hand drop-down menu from the main screen.

Cradlepoint adds an additional layer of segmentation through the Services button, allowing you to specify a specific service via well-known port/protocol combinations or via a list of nearly 1,500 applications.

NOTE: This feature offers “type-ahead”, where applications and services are selected via characters that you enter in the selection panes.

  • Step 1: To create a rule, click the New Rule button. An empty rule will appear with a rule number automatically supplied.
  • Step 2: Enter a name for the rule. It should be descriptive so that it enables you and other administrators to understand what the rule is intended to do.
    • In this example, an existing rule indicates to Block Dropbox for a specific source and destination via the Dropbox application rule and a Deny action.

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  • Step 3: Select a Source and a Destination.
    • Note: Multiple entries for each may be specified. The drop-down box allows for selection of displayed entries, but you may also enter specific values.

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  • Step 4: Select a Service from the list of well-known services that are displayed by default, or you may use type-ahead to specify your own (described in the next step).
    • In this example, we are seeking to block Facebook access.

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  • Step 5: (Optional) You may also choose to specify a custom service using the + icon immediately to the right of the Service menu.
    • Enter a Service Name, a Description, the Protocol, Start Port, and End Port in the Custom Services dialog box.
    • You may specify more than one service by clicking on New Service.
    • When finished, click Add Services.

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  • Step 6: Choose whether to Allow or Deny traffic between the Source and Destination.
  • Step 7: Select the Enable toggle to enable the rule.

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  • Step 8: Click Apply Policy at the top right of the page.
    • Note: You may add additional rules before applying the policy. All newly defined policies will be applied at once.

You may delete the rule by clicking the x icon in the righthand column. After you have added security rules and finalized your security policy, you can change the default Allow rule to a Deny rule, ensuring that only the traffic you have specified will be permitted.

  • NOTE: The default rule cannot be deleted. Its order also cannot be changed — it will always be the last rule in the policy list.

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Overview

If you reboot your Mac after setting up a Mac share (and confirming you can access the share from a Windows machine before the reboot), you may encounter the following error message:

  • “You do not have permission to access \”…

Also, if you reboot the Windows machine after rebooting the Mac, you will no longer see the above error message and will be prompt for a user name and password. Once you provide the correct username and password, you will receive another error ” Logon failure: unknown user name or bad password.”

This is a known issue on the Mac. Two workarounds are available for this:

  • Go to System Preference…/Sharing/File Sharing /Options…/ uncheck “Share files and folders using SMB (WIndows)” and then recheck it.
  • From the Terminal: copy and paste the command: sudo touch “/Library/Preferences/SystemConfiguration/com.apple.smb.server.plist”

Provide the account (admin rights) password.

You should be able to access the Mac share again.

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NetCloud Manager (6)

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Summary

The Applications Tab within NCM allows you to purchase, try and manage applications within NCM.


 

Overview

The Applications tab will display all available applications.

You can purchase or try an application by selecting the appropriate button.

Once your account has the application entitled the Buy and Try buttons will be replaced by a Manage button.

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Clicking Try will create a trial entitlement for 10 devices.

Clicking Buy will bring up a tab for locating a partner to purchase the entitlement.

By clicking Manage you can Add or Remove devices. You can also determine which devices are entitled.

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To Add a device to an entitlement click the Add button. You will be presented with a dialog to select routers to add. You can locate devices with the Search field by Name or MAC or Product as needed. Place a checkmark next to the device(s) you wish to add to the entitlement and the press Save.

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To Remove devices from an entitlement, select the device(s) you wish to remove and then press Remove.

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In the right column you can find the following information:

  • Entitlement Details
    • Available: Remaining entitlements
    • Assigned: How many entitlements have been applied to devices
    • Non NCM Devices: Devices with this entitlement that are not in NCM
    • Total Allowed: Total number of entitlements purchased.
  • Buy More: Buy more entitlements
  • Features: What the entitlement offers
  • Requirements: Any requirements placed upon the entitlement
  • Support Products: Which Cradlepoint products will work with this application
  • Supported NetCloud OS Version: NCOS requirements for devices to use this entitlement

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NETCloud Manager

The default NCM configuration generates the approximate data usage that is presented below. Protocol and carrier overhead can increase these values but these values do provide a generally good rule of thumb for data generated by use of NCM.

IMPORTANT: Things that could dramatically increase your data usage:

  1. Enabling logging, stats and alerting
  2. A high number of events being logged on the router
  3. Firmware upgrades pushed from NCM
  4. Modem disconnecting and reconnecting loops.

Routers managed through NCM:

  • By default, a Connection Pulse that are approximately 66 bytes is sent to NCM every 2 minutes.
    So 720 heartbeats/day x 66 bytes = 47520 bytes/day, 47520 bytes/day x 30 = 1,425,600 bytes/month (1.43 MB/month).
  • By default Usage Reporting that are approximately 10-20KB per report (depending on how many WAN devices are utilized on the Cradlepoint router) are sent to NCM every hour.
    So 20 KB/hour x 24 = 480 KB/day; 480 KB/day x 30 = 14400 KB/month (.014 GB/month or 14 MB/month)
  • By default Log Reports that are approximately 100KB (depending on how many events are logged on the router) are sent to NCM every hour. These reports can vary in size dramatically depending on events that are logged on the router; client connects/disconnect, modem state, etc.
    So a minimum amount of data sent would be 100 KB/hour x 24 hours = 2400 KB/day; 2400 KB/day x 30 = 72000 KB/month (.069 GB/month or 69 MB/month).

Routers not managed through NCM:

  • Every time the router is powered on it sends a 50 byte heartbeat to the NCM Server and then sends a heartbeat every 86400 seconds, (once per day).
    So the volume of data generated is approximately 50 bytes/day x 30 days = 1500 bytes/month (.0000014 GB/month or .0014 MB/month).

(The timers above can be adjusted higher or lower, depending on your data caps).


Advanced Failure Check

A ping packet is 64 bytes of data. If Advanced Failure Check set to an Idle Check Interval to 3600 (1 ping per hour) would generate 64 bytes/hour x 24 hours = 1536 bytes/day.
Then 1536 bytes/day x 30 days = 46080 bytes/month (.000042 GB/month or .042 MB/month).

NOTE: Increasing the time interval on NCM check in or Advanced Failure Check will cause data generation to increase.

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Summary

This article describes how to set up alerts, export reports, and export logs from NetCloud Manager (NCM).

NOTE: On July 13, 2017, NetCloud Alerts currently generated from the legacy Enterprise Cloud Manager (ECM) will be updated with the name change to NetCloud Manager (NCM). Automated systems that consume this information may need to be updated accordingly.
Email and API Alert changes include:

  • Alert titles will change from “Cradlepoint ECM Alert Notification” to “Cradlepoint NCM Alert Notification”
  • Alert subjects will change from “ECM Alert: <friendly info>” to “NCM Alert: <friendly info>”
  • Emailed Alert summary report subject will change from “ECM Alert Summary” to “NCM Alert Summary”
  • Connection State Alert name will change from “ECM Connection State” to “NCM Connection State”
  • Firmware Upgrade alert name will change from “Firmware Upgrade” to “NetCloud OS Upgrade” with an alert description changing to “The router NetCloud OS was successfully upgraded to X.X.X”

Setting Up Alerts

The Alerts page has two views for tracking device status changes:

  • The Log view shows a list of alerts sent from the routers to NCM.
  • The Settings view shows rules for alerts, including email notifications.

Toggle between these two views by clicking on the buttons at the top left.

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Alerts are of the following types (see Definitions below):

  • Configuration Change
  • Configuration Rejected
  • Configuration Unacknowledged
  • Ethernet WAN Disconnected
  • Ethernet WAN Plugged In
  • Ethernet WAN Unplugged
  • Data Cap Threshold
  • Device Location Unknown
  • NCM Connection State
  • Firmware Upgrade
  • Geofence Proximity Change
  • Reboot
  • Temperature Limit Exceeded
  • Modem WAN Connected
  • Modem WAN Device Plugged In
  • Modem WAN Device Unplugged
  • Modem WAN Disconnected
  • WAN Service Type
  • Account Locked
  • Failed Login Attempt
  • Intrusion Activity
  • IP Address Banned
  • IPS Engine Failure
  • Successful Login
  • Unrecognized Client
  • WiFi as WAN Connected
  • WiFi as WAN Disconnected
  • WiFi as WAN Network Available
  • WiFi as WAN Network Unavailable

To enable alerts, including emailed notifications, first select the Settings view and then click on Add at the top left. Create an alert notification rule by completing the fields.

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Complete the following fields to create an alert notification rule:

  • Accounts/Groups (required) – Choose which sets of devices will follow the notification rule. If you select an account, both grouped and ungrouped devices within that account (including all subaccounts) will be assigned to this rule.
  • Alerts (required) – Select the alert types from the dropdown options.
  • Users (optional) – If you want emailed notifications for these alerts, select users from the list to receive those emails. If you just want these alerts logged, leave this field blank.
  • Interval (optional) – Select a time interval from the dropdown options. If you select “Immediately,” an email notification is sent every time one of the selected types of alerts are logged. Otherwise, the alerts are stored over the course of the time interval and then sent together.

Potential NCM Alert Issues

  • Receiving the Email Alert seem to take longer than expected.
    • Once NCM is aware of the alert, it will verify the alert, and send it out to the configured email address. We do not have control over the alert once we have sent it to its destination address.
      • We have seen some mail servers reject, or display abnormally long delays in the alert deliveries.
        • To trouble shoot/verify if this is the issue, configure a different email address with a different domain and test the behavior of the alerts.
  • Times can also vary depending on the number and type of WAN connections being used for this device.
    • If a device only has one internet source, only one connection to NCM, then you can expect delays in the alerts. The alerts are configured in NCM, then NCM lets the router know what to watch for. If the router experiences any issue pertaining to the configured alerts, the router will then report this back to NCM. However the caveat is if the router loses its internet source or connection to NCM, then the router cannot report the issues to NCM until it regains its connection to NCM.
    • In cases where you have more than one internet connection the alerts should be fairly on queue, so long as the router can check into NCM via its second internet connection to report its alerts.

Exporting Reports

Reports allow you to create a summary of information about groups of devices and export that information as a CSV file. Select from several fields to customize your reports. Select the type of report (Data Usage or Signal Quality), a range of dates, the group(s), and identifying fields and then click Run Report to view the report. You also have the option to save the settings of a report for future use.

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Exporting Logs

To export a device’s logs as a CSV file, first enable log reporting for the group the device is in. (This is disabled by default because some users won’t use this functionality – it would unnecessarily use data.) Navigate to the Groups page, select the desired group, and click on Settings.

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In the popup window that appears, ensure that Enable Log Reporting is selected.

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Once log reporting is enabled, navigate to the Devices page, select the desired device, and click on Export → Export Logs to export the device’s logs as a CSV file.

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Alert Definitions

  • Account Locked – If Advanced Security Mode is turned on for a device, the account will lock for 30 minutes after six failed attempts to log into the device. To enable this setting, open the configuration pages in Groups or Devices and go to System Settings → Administration. Open the Router Security tab and select Advanced Security Mode.
  • Configuration Change – This displays when there has been a local configuration change. Sample alert: The device configuration has changed.
  • Configuration Rejected – A configuration change that was sent to the device has been rejected.
  • Configuration Unacknowledged – A configuration change that was sent to the device was not acknowledged by the device.
  • Data Cap Threshold – If you have a data cap threshold set, this sends an alert when the threshold is reached. A data cap threshold must be configured under Internet → Data Usage. Sample alert: The (Internal LTE/EVDO Port:int1) rule exceeded 100 percent of its 150 MB daily cycle.
  • Device Location Unknown – Displays when no location has been reported for 24 hours if the device has GPS enabled. If a manual location is being used the alert will not be generated.
  • NCM Connection State – Displays when the device loses or regains its connection to NCM. Sample alert: The device entered the “online” state.
  • Ethernet WAN Connected – An Ethernet WAN device is now active.
  • Ethernet WAN Disconnected – An Ethernet WAN device is no longer active.
  • Ethernet WAN Plugged In – An Ethernet WAN device is now attached.
  • Ethernet WAN Unplugged – An Ethernet WAN device has been removed.
  • Failed Login Attempt – Someone attempted to log into the device administration pages locally and failed. Sample alert: An attempt to log in as the admin user from 192.168.0.142 has failed.
  • NetCloud OS Upgrade – The device NetCloud OS has been upgraded.
  • Geo-fence Proximity Change – Displays whenever the device enters or exits the specified geo-fence.
  • GPIO State Change – A device GPIO pin has changed state. To update the GPIO configuration, open the configuration pages in Groups or Devices, select the System → GPIO Configuration tab. Requires at least 6.0.2 NetCloud OS.
  • Intrusion Activity – This is only relevant for devices with CP Secure Threat Management. Whenever the Threat Management deep packet inspection engine detects an intrusion, the event is recorded in the logs. These events are grouped together for 15 minutes and then reported in NCM, so even if you select “Immediately” in the Interval field below, an emailed alert might not arrive for approximately 15 minutes after an intrusion. Intrusion Activity alerts include the intrusion details and the action taken by the engine (e.g., “Blocked”). To edit Threat Management settings, open the configuration pages in Groups or Devices and select Network Settings → Threat Management. For more information about Threat Management, visit the Knowledge Base article.
  • IP Address Banned – If the Ban IP Address setting is turned on for a device and someone from a particular IP address attempts and fails to log into the device administration pages six times, that IP address will be banned for 30 minutes. To enable this setting, open the configuration pages in Groups or Devices and go to System Settings → Administration. Open the Router Security tab and click on Advanced Security Mode. Select the Ban IP Address option.
  • IPS Engine Failure – This is only relevant for devices with CP Secure Threat Management. In the unlikely event that the Threat Management engine fails, an alert is logged. You can set the router to either allow or deny traffic with a failed engine: to edit this setting, open the configuration pages in Groups or Devices and select Network Settings → Threat Management. For more information about Threat Management, visit the Knowledge Base article.
  • IPSec Tunnel Down – An IPSec tunnel that was successfully connected has gone down.
  • Modem WAN Connected – A modem WAN device is now active.
  • Modem WAN Device Plugged In – A modem WAN device is now attached.
  • Modem WAN Device Unplugged – A modem WAN device has been removed.
  • Modem WAN Disconnected – A modem WAN device is no longer active.
  • Modem WAN Standby – A modem WAN device is now in standby. This means the modem is connected to the carrier, but is not sending any data. A modem in standby will failover faster than a modem not in standby. Standby can be turned on in the router’s configuration in the Connection Manager grid.
  • Reboot – Displays when the device has been rebooted. Sample alert: The device has been rebooted.
  • Rogue Access Point Detected – Displays after running a WiFi site survey when a rogue access point not marked as known is detected broadcasting the same SSID as the device running the site survey. This helps identify potential access point hijacking, evil twin, and man-in-the-middle WiFi attacks.
  • Router App Custom Alert – A custom alert that is generated by the custom code inside a router app.
  • Router App Execution State Changed – A router app that is running on a group goes into a different execution state (start, stop, error, etc).
  • Unexpected Router App Installed – An unexpected router app is found installed, an expected router app is unexpectedly uninstalled, or a router app unknown to the system is found installed.
  • Successful Login – A user has logged into the router locally (requires at least NetCloud OS 5.0.1).
  • Temperature Limit Exceeded – For products with an internal temperature sensor (COR IBR1100 and IBR1150) and configured temperature limits, this alert displays when one of those limits is reached. To set these temperature limits for the COR IBR1100 Series, open the configuration pages in Groups or Devices, select System Settings → Administration, and click on the Temperature tab.
  • Unrecognized Client – A client with an unrecognized MAC address has attempted to connect to the device. MAC logging must be enabled for this alert to display. In the configuration pages, go to: Network Settings → MAC Filter / Logging to enable MAC logging.
  • WAN Service Type – A WAN device has changed its service type, such as switching from 3G to 4G. Possible service types include: DHCP, LTE, HSPA+, etc. Sample alert: The lte-2ae6ec8e service type has changed to LTE.
  • WiFi as WAN Connected – WiFi as WAN is now active.
  • WiFi as WAN Disconnected – WiFi as WAN is no longer active.
  • WiFi as WAN Network Available – A WiFi as WAN network is now attached.
  • WiFi as WAN Network Unavailable – A WiFi as WAN network has been removed.
  • Zscaler TLS Tunnel State – This displays the state of the Zscaler TLS tunnel when using Zscaler Internet Security in TLS Tunnel mode. If there is a connection error more information can be found in the router’s system log.

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For customers with NetCloud Manager (NCM), there are three main ways to edit a device’s configuration: in NCM, through Group and Device configurations, and locally, through the router’s own administrative page.

  • NCM Group configuration has the lowest priority.
  • NCOS Local configuration has high priority.
  • NCM Device configuration has the highest priority.

The router’s default configuration is used as a basis for comparison for configuration files. It is overwritten by any custom local configurations or NCM configurations.

The Group configuration in NCM is overwritten by both the custom Local router configuration and the Device configuration in NCM.

The NCM Device and Local router configurations are synonymous in most cases. When making a configuration change at the local level, the changes will then sync with the NCM Device level, and vice versa. The two scenarios where the NCM Device level configuration will override Local changes are:

  • when conflicting changes are made at both the Local and NCM Device level while the device is offline. Once brought online and checks into NCM, the NCM Device level changes will have priority.
  • when a new change is made locally while the NCM Device level configuration is still syncing the previous change. The new change will be overwritten by the last NCM Device level configuration once the sync completes.

In general, the preferred method for managing devices that are registered in NCM is through the Group configuration. If there are more specific settings needed for individual devices, use the Device configuration in NCM. For example, it is possible to make the administration password standard for an entire group, and then create individual SSIDs for each device – both through NCM.

Troubleshooting

If most of the devices in a group are functioning as intended, but one member of the group is not behaving the same as the others, there may be a device level configuration that is overriding the group configuration. To remove the Device configuration and keep the Group configuration, log in to NetCloud Manager, select the Devices tab, highlight your router, click Configuration and select Clear

Clear Device configuration


 

Determining where a router gets its configuration

The individual config symbol found on the NCM Devices page indicates that the router is running a non-default configuration. The same symbol, when found on the NCM Groups pages tells us that the group contains one more routers that are running configuration settings that do not match the router default or the group configuration. (Tip: clicking the individual config symbol on the Groups page will automatically display all routers with unique configurations.)

The Configuration Summary option in NCM displays a color-coded output of the router’s configuration. The target configuration displays the total sum of the different configurations the router is running:

  • settings in purple are pulled from the Group configuration in NCM
  • settings in green are pulled from the Device configuration in NCM
  • settings in grey exist only on the router’s local configuration file, and are not synced to the Device configuration in NCM (possibly because the config sync was suspended, or the router went offline before syncing)

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Resetting a Router Managed in NetCloud

If you factory reset a device that is managed by NetCloud Manager, the Cradlepoint will automatically connect to the internet, check back in with NetCloud Manager and re-apply the Group and Device configuration stored in NetCloud. To get the device to a factory default state, the NetCloud Device and Group configuration need to be removed from the device.

To factory reset a device that is in NetCloud Manager, do the following first before trying a software or hardware reset, otherwise, it will be reverted to its previous configuration.

Step 1: Log in to Netcloud Manager. Open the Devices tab and select your Cradlepoint Router.
Step 2: If the device is in a group: highlight the router, click “Move”, select the parent account, and click “Ok”.

Highlight your router and select "move"
Select the root account and click "ok"

Step 3: Once the device is removed from the group, highlight your router, click “Configuration” and select “Clear”.

Highlight your router, click "Configuration" and select "Clear"

Step 4: Once the router has been removed from its group and the device level configuration has been cleared, you can factory reset by clicking “Commands” and selecting “Restore to Defaults”. You may also use the hardware reset button or System > System Control > Device Options > Factory Reset Router in the local web interface.

Highlight your router, click "Configuration" and select "Clear"

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NetCloud Manager: Traffic Analytics

The following products do not support Traffic analytics:

  • Series 2 Devices
  • CBA850
  • CBA750B
  • CBA400
  • CBA450
  • MBR1200B
  • MBR1400
  • IBR350
  • IBR1100
  • IBR1150
  • IBR600B
  • IBR650B
  • IBR600
  • IBR650

Click here to identify your router.


Quick Links

Summary

Configuration

Troubleshooting

Related Articles


Summary

This article is intended to guide the user through navigating, configuring, and understanding the NetCloud Manager Traffic Analytics feature.

Enabling the Traffic Analytics feature requires NCM Enterprise.  To learn more about NCM Enterprise, including setting up a demo, please visit Network Management & Applications .


Configuration

Enabling Traffic Analytics Difficulty: Beginner

Traffic analytics can be enabled through NCM under the account dashboard or in the device dashboard after selecting specific device.

To enable Traffic Analytics, follow the directions listed below.

Step 1: Log into your NCM account
Step 2: If your router is not already registered to NCM, refer to this article for help registering your device to NCM.  Otherwise, skip to the next step.

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Step 3: Click on the Dashboard tab.
Step 4: Click on Traffic tab underneath the Dashboard menu.
Step 5: Click on the Settings button.
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Step 6: Find the device you wish to enable Traffic Analytics on on (either through the list or through the search bar) and check the associated box.
Step 7: Click on the Enable button above the top of the devices table, and then click on “Client and Traffic”.
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Step 8: The prompt will ask if you are sure you wish to enable the feature, select Yes.

Note: After enabling Traffic Analytics for a device it will take 24 hours to start showing reported data.

Note: The same process can be completed through the device dashboard by clicking the same Traffic menu button.

Dashboard vs Device Level

Traffic Analytics can be found under both the account dashboard and the device dashboard.
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Account Traffic Analytics can be viewed by clicking on the Dashboard button and clicking on the Traffic button under the account dashboard menu.
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Device Traffic Analytics can be viewed by clicking on the Devices button, selecting the desired device from the list, and clicking on the Traffic button under the devices dashboard menu.
Both Client Data Analytics pages will present the same information, but the device level will only present information on clients connected to that particular device.

Adjust Data Range and Category Difficulty: Beginner 

The Traffic Analytics page has settings to specify the desired data range time period, the category of traffic to present on the page and data source information.  This can help present only the relevent information desired for a particular user.  To change these settings follow the directions listed below:

Step 1: Log into your NCM account.
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Step 2: Access the Traffic Analytics page through the account or device dashboard
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Step 3: To change the data range, click on the Data Range field and select from YesterdayLast 7 DaysLast 15 DaysLast 30 Days, or Custom Range to specify a broader date range.
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Step 4: To change the data source, click on the Data Source field and select from AllEthernet, WiFi, or Unknown to specify what types of client data types you want to have displayed.
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Step 5: You see which categories of data and applications are using what percentage of the total data used by scrolling down to the Top Categories and Top Applications sections.
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Step 6: You can view what percentage of your data is being used by which category and which application by scrolling down to the Percent of Total Usage and Data Usage by Day sections.
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Step 7: Filter the type of data displayed by category by clicking on the drop down menu for Category.
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Step 8: Filter the type of data displayed by application by clicking on the drop down menu for Application.
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Step 9: The last section of the page shows Data Usage by Category, Application, RouterClient, or Day.  Select one of these filters to view specific data usage numbers such as total data usage, download and upload data for the selected filter.

Troubleshooting

  • No traffic statistics displayed

If you are viewing the Traffic Analytics page on the Dashboard and there is nothing displayed, please check the following:

Traffic Analytics may not have enabled for the device.
The device might have been added recently (within 24 hours) and does not yet have data to display.

  • “Not Available” displayed in app category field

    Traffic category/application may result in “Not Available” when the application engine cannot categorize the traffic.  This may be caused if:

1. Application is not one of the applications identified by the engine; including any home-grown applications

2. Traffic is tunneled/encrypted not allowing the engine to inspect the application

 

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