How do I configure routing protocols?

NOTE: Routing Protocols require a feature license. Go to System Settings → Feature Licenses to enable these features.

A routing protocol is a protocol that specifies how routers communicate with each other, disseminating information that enables them to select routes between any two nodes on a computer network. Routing algorithms choose the route. Each router has a prior knowledge only of networks attached to it directly. A routing protocol shares this information first among immediate neighbors, and then throughout the network. This way, routers gain knowledge of the topology of the network.

Choose from the following tabs to configure routing protocols:

  • BGP Routing
  • OSPF Routing
  • RIP Routing
  • RIPNG Routing
  • Route Maps and Filters

BGP Routing

The latest version of BGP (Border Gateway Protocol) is version 4. BGP-4 is one of the Exterior Gateway Protocols and de facto standard of Inter Domain routing protocol. BGP-4 is described in RFC1771, A Border Gateway Protocol 4 (BGP-4). BGP is a distance vector routing protocol, and the AS-Path framework provides distance vector metric and loop detection to BGP. RFC1930.

BGP Editor

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  • Name: Unique name of the policy.
  • ASN: The AS (Autonomous System) number is one of the essential elements of BGP.
  • Router-ID: This sets the router-ID of the BGP process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be – it can be any arbitrary 32-bit number. However it MUST be unique within the entire BGP domain to the BGP speaker: bad things will happen if multiple BGP speakers are configured with the same router-ID.
  • Enabled: Click to enable/disable the policy. (Default: enabled.)

Networks Associated with ASN or IPv6 Networks Associated with ASN: To configure a BGP router, you need an AS number. An AS number is an identification of autonomous system. BGP protocol uses the AS number for detecting whether the BGP connection is internal one or external one. Use the IPv4 address and netmask or IPv6 address with a CIDR notation prefix length to define the address range.

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Neighbor Options or IPv6 Neighbor Options: Creates a new neighbor identified by remote ASN and IP address.

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Redistribute Routes: Redistribute routes of the specified protocol or kind into BGP, with the metric type and metric set if specified, filtering the routes using the given route map if specified. Redistributed routes may also be filtered with distribute lists.

  • Type: The type is the source of the route. Select from: Main, Connected, Static, RIP, and OSPF.
  • Metric: Numerical priority of the route.
  • Route Map: Route maps provide a means to filter and/or apply actions to routes, allowing policies to be applied to routes.

OSPF Routing

OSPF (Open Shortest Path First) version 2 is a routing protocol described in RFC2328, OSPF Version 2. OSPF is an IGP (Interior Gateway Protocol). Compared with RIP, OSPF can provide more scalable network support and faster convergence times. OSPF is widely used in large networks such as ISP (Internet Service Provider) backbone and enterprise networks.

OSPF Areas

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  • Area: Areas are identified by an ID.
  • Default Cost: Set the cost of default-summary LSAs announced to stubby areas.
  • Stub Area: Configure area to be stub area.
  • No-Summary: Prevents ABR from injecting inter-area summaries into the specified stub area

OSPF Editor

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  • Router ID: This sets the router-ID of the OSPF process. The router-ID may be an IP address of the router, but need not be – it can be any arbitrary 32-bit number. However it MUST be unique within the entire OSPF domain to the OSPF speaker – bad things will happen if multiple OSPF speakers are configured with the same router-ID.
  • Authentication Key: Set OSPF authentication key to a simple password. After setting authentication key, all OSPF packets are authenticated. The authentication key has a maximum length of eight characters.
  • Enabled: Click to enable/disable the policy. (Default: enabled.)

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Network Areas: Areas are identified by an ID number. Use the IP address and netmask fields to associate a network with this policy.

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Redistribute Routes: Redistribute routes of the specified protocol or kind into BGP, with the metric type and metric set (if specified), filtering the routes using the given route map (if specified). Redistributed routes may also be filtered with distribute lists.

  • Type: The type is the source of the route. Select from: Main, Connected, Static, RIP, OSPF.
  • Metric: Numerical priority of the route.
  • Route Map: Route maps provide a means to filter and/or apply actions to routes, allowing policies to be applied to routes.

RIP Routing

RIP (Routing Information Protocol) is a widely deployed interior gateway protocol. RIP is a distance-vector protocol based on the Bellman-Ford algorithms. As a distance-vector protocol, RIP sends updates from one router to its neighbors periodically, allowing the convergence to a known topology. In each update, the distance to any given network will be broadcast to its neighboring router. The router supports RIP version 2 as described in RFC2453 and RIP version 1 as described in RFC1058.

RIP Editor

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  • Name: Unique name of the policy.
  • Metric: RIP metric is a value for distance for the network. Usually RIP increments the metric when the network information is received. The metric for redistributed routes is set to 1.
  • Protocol Version: RIP can be configured to send either Version 1 or Version 2 packets. The default is to send RIPv2 while accepting both RIPv1 and RIPv2 (and replying with packets of the appropriate version for REQUESTS / triggered updates).
  • Password: RIPv2 allows packets to be authenticated via either an insecure plain text password, included with the packet, or a more secure MD5 based HMAC (keyed-Hashing for Message AuthentiCation). RIPv1 cannot be authenticated at all, so when authentication is configured RIP will discard routing updates received via RIPv1 packets.
  • Plain text password: Select to use a plain text password instead of an MD5 HMAC. A plain text password is insecure!
  • Enabled: Click to enable/disable the policy. (Default: enabled.)

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Networks: Set the RIP-enabled interfaces by network. RIP is enabled on the interfaces that have addresses within the network range.

Neighbors: When a neighbor doesn’t understand multicast, this command is used to specify neighbors. In some cases, not all routers will be able to understand multicasting, where packets are sent to a network or a group of addresses. In a situation where a neighbor cannot process multicast packets, it is necessary to establish a direct link between routers. The neighbor command allows the network administrator to specify a router as a RIP neighbor. The no neighbor a.b.c.d command will disable the RIP neighbor. Assign a neighbor by inputting an IP address.

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Redistribute Routes: Redistribute routes of the specified protocol or kind into RIP, with the metric type and metric set (if specified), filtering the routes using the given route map (if specified). Redistributed routes may also be filtered with distribute lists.

  • Type: The type is the source of the route. Select from: Main, Connected, Static, OSPF, BGP.
  • Metric: RIP metric is a value for distance for the network. Usually RIP increments the metric when the network information is received. The metric for redistributed routes is set to 1.
  • Route Map: Route maps provide a means to filter and/or apply actions to routes, allowing policies to be applied to routes.

RIPNG Routing

RIPng (RIP next generation) extends RIPv2 to support IPv6. See RIPng on Wikipedia and RFC 2080 for details.

RIPNG Editor

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  • Name: Unique name of the policy.
  • Metric: RIPng metric is a value for distance for the network. Usually the RIP service increments the metric when the network information is received. The metric for redistributed routes is set to 1.
  • Enabled: Click to enable/disable the policy. (Default: enabled.)

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Networks: Set the RIPng-enabled interfaces by network using IPv6 addresses. RIPng is enabled on the interfaces that have addresses within the network range.

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Routes: Set RIPng static routing announcement of specified network address.

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Redistribute Routes: Redistribute routes of the specified protocol or kind into RIPng, with the metric type and metric set if specified, filtering the routes using the given route-map if specified.

  • Type: The type is the source of the route. Select from: Main, Connected, Static, OSPF, BGP.
  • Metric: RIPng metric is a value for distance for the network. Usually the RIP service increments the metric when the network information is received. The metric for redistributed routes is set to 1.
  • Route Map: Route maps provide a means to filter and/or apply actions to routes, allowing policies to be applied to routes.

Route Maps and Filters

Access Lists

This option provides for basic filtering based on IP addresses and netmasks.

Click Add to create a filtering rule.

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  • Name: Choose a unique name.
  • Allow: Select “Permit” or “Deny”.
  • IP Address: Input the IP addresses that you want permitted or denied.
  • Netmask: Use this along with “IP Address” to specify a range of IP Addresses associated with this Access Lists rule.

Route Map

Route maps provide a means to filter and/or apply actions to routes, allowing policies to be applied to routes. Route maps define rules for transferring between different routing protocols. Each statement in a route map is ordered. Once there is a match to a statement, the statement is executed and the scan terminates.

Click Add to create a new route map.

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  • Name: Choose a unique name.
  • Allow: Select “Permit” or “Deny”.
  • Order: Input a number to set the order of this policy.

Match and Set: Both of these have the following configuration options:

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  • IP address: Input an IP address with this policy.
  • Metric: Numerical priority of the route.
  • Community: The BGP community list is a user-defined BGP communities attribute list. The BGP community list can be used for matching or manipulating BGP communities attribute in updates.The community attributes are a 32-bit number that also has some aliases.
    • internet: alias for well-known communities value 0
    • no-export: alias for well-known communities value NO_EXPORT (0xffffff01)
    • no-advertise: alias for well-known communities value NO_ADVERTISE (0xffffff02)
    • local-AS: alias for well-known communities value NO_EXPORT_SUBCONFED (0xffffff03)

Match: This specifies the policy implied if the “Matching Conditions” are met or not met, and which actions of the route map are to be taken, if any. The two possibilities are:

  1. Permit: If the entry matches, then carry out the “Set Actions”. Then finish processing the route map, permitting the route, unless an “Exit Action” indicates otherwise.
  2. Deny: If the entry matches, then finish processing the route-map and deny the route (return “deny”).

Set: A route-map entry may, optionally, specify one or more `Set Actions’ to set or modify attributes of the route.


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