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Series 3: How do I configure Quality of Service (WiPipe QoS) on my CradlePoint Router?

If you are not sure what Series CradlePoint router you have, please click here.

This article was written based on firmware version 4.3.0.

Description:

By default, the CradlePoint router will not favor any kind of Internet traffic over any another – all users, ports, applications, sources and destinations are treated equally.  There are times when it is highly desirable to prioritize the Internet traffic for specific users or devices over the needs of other users of the network.

CradlePoint’s Enterprise routers (MBR1400, CBR400, CBR450, IBR600 and IBR650) include a feature called WiPipe QoS (Quality of Service) that allows the administrator to configure traffic shaping/quality of service rules to ensure time-critical applications are given appropriate priority over less-important network usage.

The types of applications that benefit the most from defined WiPipe QoS rules are those that rely on the timely delivery of real-time data packets, for example:

VoIP telephony
Videoconferencing
Real-time streaming media
Online video gaming

These types of real-time applications will quickly become unusable when there is too much latency (lag or delay) created in its connection because of other network use.  For example, spoken words over a VoIP phone call may be delayed for a half-second because other users are checking e-mail or visiting a web site.  WiPipe QoS rules allow the router to set simple or complex rules to prioritize or restrict incoming and outgoing traffic based on a variety of criteria.

The CradlePoint’s WiPipe QoS implementation divides the available upload and download bandwidths into 1% pieces, allowing the CradlePoint to reserve bandwidth to only be used by specific users or applications.  QoS rules can also be configured to borrow unused bandwidth from other rules if desired, and also supports overlap between rules.  If more than one rule matches, the rule with the highest priority will be used.

Directions:

  1. Log into the CradlePoint’s Setup pages, the default location is http://192.168.0.1.  Click here if you are unsure of how to access the Setup pages.
  2. Click Network Settings and then WiPipe QoS from the drop-down menu.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  User-added image
  3. Place a checkmark next to the Enable WiPipe QoS option.
  4. In the WAN Interface Speed section, set the approximate upload and download speed for each WAN Interface.  This can be also used to restrict the maximum upload and/or download speed for the Internet sources you are using.  It is recommended that you experiment with different values for your particular Internet connection for best results.
  5. In this example, the Upload Speed is set to 1Mb/s and the Download Speed is set to 20Mb/s.
  6. Click Apply at the bottom of the section to save your settings.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          User-added image
  7. Click Add to bring up the Add Traffic Shaping / QoS Queue page.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   User-added image
  8. In the Add Traffic Shaping / QoS Queue editor, give the Queue a unique name.  In our example, we are creating a Queue to prioritize VoIP traffic, so we’ll name the rule “VoIP” and set the Upload Bandwidth parameters.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     User-added image
    • If you would like this rule to be able to borrow unused bandwidth from other rules, leave the Borrow Spare Bandwidth option checked.  If you prefer to restrict the upload traffic to the Upload Bandwidth specified below, uncheck this box.
    • Set the Upload Bandwidth to reserve a percentage of your bandwidth for this rule.  The maximum value is adjusted to the remaining percentage after other rules receive their share.
    • Increasing the Upload Priority will cause the traffic to be handled before lower priority traffic which can lead to shorter response times.  Additionally, when spare bandwidth is available it is offered to higher priority classes first.  There are a total of eight priority classes: Lowest, Lower, Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High, Higher, and Highest.
    • In this example, we have reserved 25% of the upload bandwidth for this rule.  This will leave a maximum of 75% remaining for other rules.  We have enabled it to borrow spare bandwidth from other rules and set to Upload Priority to Higher
  9. On this page you will specify the Download Bandwidth for your Queue.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        User-added image
    • If you would like this rule to be able to borrow unused bandwidth from other rules, leave the Borrow Spare Bandwidth option checked.  If you prefer to restrict the download traffic to the Download Bandwidth specified below, uncheck this box.
    • Set the Download Bandwidth to reserve a percentage of your bandwidth for this rule.  The maximum value is adjusted to the remaining percentage after other rules receive their share.
    • Increasing the Download Priority will cause the traffic to be handled before lower priority traffic which can lead to shorter response times.  Additionally, when spare bandwidth is available it is offered to higher priority classes first.  There are a total of eight priority classes: Lowest, Lower, Below Normal, Normal, Above Normal, High, Higher, and Highest.
    • In this example, we have reserved 40% of the download bandwidth for this rule.  This will leave a maximum of 60% remaining for other rules.  We have enabled it to borrow spare bandwidth from other rules and set to Download Priority to Highest.
    • There is also the option to specify a DSCP (DiffServ) Tag.  You can use this option if you want the DSCP header of each IP packet that comes through this queue to be ‘tagged’ so that other networking equipment upstream or post-NAT can do traffic shaping based on these DSCP tags as opposed to using ports.
  10. Click Finish when you are done.
  11. Click Add under Rules to create rules for your Queues to follow.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    User-added image
  12. Make sure the Rule is Enabled, give your rule a name, in this case we will call it “VoIP Rule”, select your Protocol, and then select theQueue to apply the rule to.                                                                                                                                         User-added image
  13. At this screen you will describe the network or server on the Internet for which you want to shape traffic.  Leaving a field empty will match any IP address and/or port number.  All fields are optional.
    1. This example applies for traffic between a VoIP telephone using local IP address 192.168.0.150 from any port when connecting to a VoIP server on IP address 172.16.0.25 on any port.  Your settings will be different than the settings entered here.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             User-added image
  14. Click Finish to save the rule.
  15. You will now be returned to the Network Settings / WiPipe QoS page where you can see the rule you entered.  If you have multiple rules you can use the up and down arrows to change the priority.
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After saving this rule, 250 Kb/s (25% of 1 Mb/s) of upload bandwidth and 8 Mb/s (40% of 20Mb/s) of download bandwidth will be reserved for this rule, and bandwidth would also be borrowed from other rules (if there were any) if necessary.  The rule would apply for traffic originating from 192.168.0.150 with a destination IP address of 172.16.0.25.

Another example would be to restrict the bandwidth of your guest network in order to reserve crucial bandwidth for your primary network.  Create a rule associated with the IP address range and appropriate netmask for the guest network.  Then set upload/download bandwidth limits as a percentage of your available bandwidth.  For example:

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You can view the status of your WiPipe QoS Queues by clicking Status and then WiPipe QoS from the drop-down.

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Note:

As routers have no control regarding when they receive packets, but do have control when they send packets, QoS rules created for outbound connections are significantly more effective than rules created for inbound connections.


Category: Cradlepoint Series 3

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